EXTRACTS FROM THE POLITICAL DIARY
THE INSTITUTE OF MARXIST-LENINIST STUDIES AT THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE PARTY OF LABOUR OF ALBANIA
"8 NENTORI" PUBLISHING HOUSE
In the rich fund of the all-sided creative work of Comrade Enver Hoxha, the beloved and unforgettable leader of the Albanian Party and people, along with the series of volumes of his Works, theoretical books, volumes of reminiscences, correspondence with the people, etc., his Political Diary on International Questions (1958-1984), which is kept in the Central Archives of the Party, takes an important place. Up till now the following publications: "Reflections on China" in two volumes, "Reflections on the Middle East" and "Two Friendly Peoples", have come from this Diary. And now here is a new publication "The Superpowers".
This whole book reflects many acute and important events of international political life which have occurred during the quarter century (June 1959 to December 1984).
In particular, while observing all aspects of the policy and stand of the United States of America and the Soviet Union with unremitting attention, in this book Comrade
Enver Hoxha makes a profound analysis of them. He explains how the superpowers were created, what they represent and what characterizes their internal and external policies, what is their true nature and strategy, their place, and the role which they play in the various political developments of our time.
By means of notes, reflections and political panoramas, written with great passion and expressive and generalizing force, the author makes a wide-ranging analysis of the aims and efforts of American imperialism to establish and extend its hegemony everywhere in the world. By presenting a complete tableau of American policy, from the end of the Second World War to the present day, he exposes the gendarme role of the United States of America, its secret and open economic, political and military interventions and pressures against freedom-loving peoples and sovereign countries in order to subjugate and plunder them.
Likewise, by analysing the retrogressive process which occurred in the Soviet Union when the Khrushchevites came to power, Comrade Enver Hoxha shows how, at the beginning of the sixties, a new great capitalist and socialimperialist power, thirsting far world domination, was arising and emerging on the world scene. In a number of articles from this period, he points out those features which characterize the Khrushchevite strategy for the transformation of the Soviet Union from a socialist country into an aggressive imperialist surperpower. In these aims and feverish efforts to create their empire, the Khrushchevites tried to destroy socialism and the genuine communist parties and to quell the revolutionary and liberation movements of the peoples everywhere. In the Soviet Union and in the other countries of people's democracy they caused the tragedy which we know about, while with the Party of Labour of Albania and the Albanian people they did not succeed, but failed in their intrigues, conspiracies and open military threats. On what basis did the contradictions arise and the struggle develop between the Party of Labour of Albania and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, what proportions did the struggle assume and how did the Albanian people cope with the difficult situation and the savage blockade of the Soviet revisionist leadership which spoke and acted from the positions of a great power towards a small but indomitable people? This book, which speaks about these stormy events, throws light on these facts of historical importance.
This struggle of the Party of Labour of Albania not only saved the Albanian people from a terrible fate, but was also a major contribution to the common cause of the peoples whom it warned from the outset of the new dangers with which they were being threatened by a new superpower disguised with a "socialist" veil.
Being a man of broad erudition and profound knowledge of world political developments, and following and interpreting them from the standpoint of dialectical and historical materialism, in this book Comrade Enver Hoxha penetrates to the essence of questions which are worrying the whole mankind today and reveals the true causes of the continuous increase of international tension and those who are causing it. With great political and ideological courage, he denounces the superpowers which, through their expansionist and hegemonic policy, have created a threatening, explosive and unstable situation in the world, as well as grave major dangers far the security of peoples and general peace. He exposes the demagogy about peace and the plots of American imperialism and Soviet socialimperialism, their secret diplomacy and the intrigues which they hatch up in the United Nations Organization and everywhere else to the detriment of the freedom and sovereignty of peoples. He strongly and publicly condemns their aggressive and reactionary character, their strategy and the fascist doctrines which they have elaborated to put their strategy into practice. In this context, many events such as the Caribbean crisis, the American aggression against Vietnam, the Soviet revisionists' aggression against Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan, the American interference in the Middle East, especially in Lebanon, the invasion of little Grenada, the deployment of new American and Soviet missiles in the European countries and the "star wars" for the occupation of outer space, occupy a special place in this book. In the analysis which he makes of these events, Comrade Enver Hoxha denounces the brutal methods and practices of superpower intervention, the terrorism which the superpowers have raised to a system and transformed into state policy.
The book "The Superpowers" also deals extensively with the Soviet-American collaboration, from its first steps with the establishment of the direct telephone link to the summit meetings between chiefs of American imperialism and the Soviet social-imperialism. A detailed analysis is given both of the idyllic picture of Soviet-American relations and the law of the jungle which exists in these relations. Comrade Enver Hoxha defines clearly that nothing good comes to the world either when the superpowers quarrel or when they ore in close alliance with each other. In each case, the peoples pay the cost.
The analysis, facts and events which ore presented in the book inform the reader not only about the strategy and tactics which the two superpowers pursue far world domination, about the specific and common features which characterize them, but also about the relations they have with their "allies", the countries of the West and of the East which they have incorporated in the military blocs of NATO and the Warsaw Treaty. The policy of other imperialist or social-imperialist powers, of "United Europe" and China to become superpowers; their approaches to, collisions and contradictions with the United States of America and the Soviet Union, ore dealt with from the same standpoint.
The arguments which Comrade Enver Hoxha puts forward in this book refute the myths spread by bourgeois propaganda about the "invincibility" of the superpowers.
He discloses the American and Soviet "Achilles' heel" , while making a high appreciation of the great and invincible force of the proletariat and the freedom-loving peoples of the world, who are resolutely and boldly opposing and challenging the aggressive policy of American imperialism, Soviet social-imperialism and other imperialist powers. Coming out in defence of the lofty aspirations of the peoples, of their just struggle for freedom and independence, Comrade Enver Hoxha says firmly that every people is able to live free and independent in its own country, without holding out a hand to either superpower and without their credits or atomic umbrellas.
The conclusions presented in this book about the present international situation, about the repeated economic, political, moral and ideological crises which are more and more shaking the capitalist and the revisionist world, are of great theoretical and practical value.
This book once again brings out clearly that brilliant course on which socialist Albania has proceeded and is proceeding uninterruptedly, that resolute and courageous struggle which our Party and people have waged against imperialist, revisionist and other enemies to defend not only the freedom and independence of socialist Albania, but also the just cause of all the freedom-loving peoples of the world. The book is a further testimony to that corretti, revolutionary, internationalist policy which the Party of Labour of Albania and the Albanian socialist state have worked out and always applied in international relations, a policy which is followed and defended loyally by the Central Committee of the Party with Comrade Ramiz Alia at the head.
TUESDEY JUNE 2, 1959
KHRUSHKEV CONTINUES IS VISIT TO THE SOUT PENG DEHUAI HAS LEFT
We went to see the orange plantation at Stjar. We visited Butrin. (Ancied City South Albania).
While we were looking at the beauties of Butrin, Khrushchev (Khrushchevs visited Albania from May 25 to June 4, 1959) called Malinovsky to him and I heards is whisper, "What a mervelleus place! Here an ideale base for our submarine can be built... From here we could paralize and attack everything."
I was astonished at how he could make such a calculation "without consulting the owners",
as our people say.
We returned to Vlora again by ship. Grotewohl (Then member of the Political Bureau of the CC of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and prime mininster of the German Democratic Republic.) was with us. too.
Today Marshal Peng Dehuai (At thet time Minister of Defence of China.) left Albania.
WEDNESDAY JUNE 3, 1959
FROM KHRUSHCHEV'S STAY IN ALBANIA
When we were looking out to sea from the veranda of the villa at Uji i Ftohte (Tourist spot near the town of Vlora in South Albania), where we were resting, Khrushchev in an undertone discussed with Malinovsky as he did yesterday in Butrint, "What a secure bay at the foot of these mountains! With a powerful fleet stationed here we have the whole Mediterranean from the Bosporus to Gibraltar in our hands!".
What terrible plans this man, who talks so much about peace. is hatching up! (In his book, The Khrushchevites, Comrade Enver Hoxha writes: "It made my flesh creep to hear them talk like this, as if they were masters of the seas, countries and peoples. "No, Nikita Khrushchev," I said to myself, we shall never allow you to set out to enslave other countries and shed their peoples' blood from our territory. You will never have Butrin Vlora or any inch of the Albanian territory, to use for those evil purposes.'. (Enver Hoxha, The Khrushchevites (Memoirs), 2nd Eng. ed., "8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana 1984, p. 377)). Let us hope that these are only his usual "jokes". We must see whether he will raise them in the official talks. If he does so, we shall give him our reply.
We returned by plane to Tirana. We stopped at Rinas to visit the "Tu-114" aircraft aboard which the Academician Tupolev, chief constructor of this type of plane, had come.
We laid the foundation stone of the new Palace of Culture in Tirana.
Dinner at the Palace of Brigades for the Soviet delegation.
SATURDAY JUNE 6, 1959
SOME MATTERS FROM THE TALKS WITH KHRUSHCHEV WHICH AROUSE DOUBT
At the meeting of the Political Bureau which we; held today to inform the Bureau about the talks which we had with Khrushchev during his day in our country, I mentioned certain expressions and opinions of his which have aroused my suspicion, Thus, during the discussion of the economic requirements which our side presented to the Soviet side, he laid, as if jokingly, "I've not come here for these things," although, when the question of the development of the oil industry was being discussed, he came out with the claim that our oil "has a high sulphure content" and "advised" us not to make investments where we have no profits (This "advice" of Khrushchev was aimed at darkening the great perspectives which oil extraction had m Albania, Khrushchev did not content himself with Its, but also set the Soviet specialworking in our country in action with the aim of sabotaging the sensitive key points of the Albanian economy, especially the all industry and geology). In the field of the development of agriculture, he showed his readiness to cooperate in the planting of the maximum number of orange-trees and bay-trees. "Plant thousands of hectares of them," he told us, "because with these products you could buy all the grain and meat you want in the Soviet Union."
From the military stand-point Khrushchev saw Albania as a country of great strategic importance for the Mediterranean, which must serve the Soviet Union as a base for the deployment of the Soviet navy and the launching of Soviet missiles. (At Butrint and Vlora as I have written, he made open allusions to such a thing.)
These heavily camouflaged expressions and opinions, expressed sometimes jokingly and sometimes seriously, do not seem to me to be very friendly or internationalist towards our country and people and other peoples. Time will confirm whether or not these impressions of mine are accurate.
MOSCOW, SUNDAY JANUARY 31, 1960
THE SOVIETS TRY TO BRAINWASH US AGAINST CHINA (The delegation of the Party of Labour of Albania, headed by Comrade Enver Hoxha, had gone to Moscow at that time to participate in the meeting of the representatives of the communist and workers' parties of the socialist countries of Europe on the question of the development of agriculture)
Today we went to the home of Milcoyan by his invitation. For five hours on end he tried to brainwash us against China. What evil things did he not say against it!
Everything he told us astonished us, aroused our suspicions, because the way in which he told these things was by no means a correct Marxist-Leninist way. The aim of the Soviets was to line us up against China.
Our comrades who will participate in the meeting of the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Treaty arrived this afternoon from Tirana.
In the evening we went to Luzhinsky to see the Czech ice ballet. There we met Khrushchev and other Soviet comrades.
FRIDAY MARCH 25, 1960
POLICY OF SOFTNESS, COMPROMISES AND CONCESSIONS TOWARDS AMERICAN IMPERIALISM
Today Soviet ambassador Ivanov informed me about the correspondence which Khrushchev has had during this month with Eisenhower in connection with atomic weapons.
Khrushchev pins great hopes on the American president. The policy of the Soviet Union towards American imperialism is not principled, strong and resolute, but is all concessions, and even "supplication". Seeing this policy of Khrushchev, the American imperialists, for their part, are proving very demanding.
It is not right to continue with such a fruitless policy of softness and compromise. The struggle which we are waging in defence of peace and for disarmament does not mean that we should ever stand at the mercy of the Americans, tagging along behind them. Events must never be allowed to develop when and how they want. Khrushchev is all talk.
WEDNESDAY MARCH 30,1960
OUR SUSPICIONS ABOUT THE IMPROPER WORK OF THE SOVIET GEOLOGISTS ARE CONFIRMED
From the talk about oil geology, which I had with two of our oil geologists from the Ministry of Mines, my suspicions are confirmed that the groups of Soviet geologists are not in order in their work; they operate according to their own ideas, and they do not give satisfactory results. But there is no check-up from our side, either. The fields and points which they present for drilling and prospecting do not yield oil. (As Comrade Enver Hoxha writes, "These oil experts, and 'geologists' made two reports: an accurate one, with exact and positive data on discoveries of different minerals, and a false one, which said that the prospecting had allegedly yielded negative results, i.e., the minerals sought were not discovered. The first report was sent to Moscow and Leningrad through the KGB centre, which was called the Soviet Embassy in Tirana. and the second report was sent to our Ministry of Industry and Mines. This whole vile business was discovered and proved after the Soviets cleared out of Albanian" (Enver Hoxha, The Khrushchevites (Memoirs), 2nd Eng. ed., ."8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana, 1984. p. 379.)) Their activities are not accidental, therefore, we cannot permit such a situation to continue any longer. I discussed this very serious problem with Comrades Spiro Koleka and Adil Çarçani. I also summoned ambassador Ivanov and told him my ideas bluntly. I instructed Spiro to present this problem openly to Kosygin when he goes to Moscow shoud exercise control over the work of the Soviet geologist. However, we, too, must step up our control on the activity of the group of Soviet geologist.
MONDAY MAY 16, 1960
OPPOSING VIEWS WITH THE SOVIET AMBASSADOR
Today I received Soviet ambassador Ivanov. I saw that he had come to sound us out on our views about the summit conference which is scheduled to begin in Paris today.
I told him that our stands had been decided at the Moscow Meeting of the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Treaty ( This meeting was held on February 4, 1960), i. e., we must make the imperialists no concessions. I have no hope that any result will be achieved. Everything there will be sabotaged by the imperialists.
Our views were not in accord, because ambassador Ivanov had hopes that something might emerge from this conference. Let time confirm the correctness of our judgement!
Today, too, I received the Czechoslovak ambassador who, on behalf of the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, invited me to spend my holidays in Czechoslovakia. I thanked him but told him that this year I was not going abroad for my holidays.
TUESDAY MAY 17. 1960
AN ABORTIVE CONFERENCE
The summit conference in Paris was aborted before it ever got going. The despatch by the American imperialists of their "U-2" spy plane over the air space of the Soviet Union complicated the situation.
My opinion is that the conference won't begin at all (In fact that is what occurred. The summit conference in Paris never met to begin its proceedings, because it was sabotaged by the American imperialists and by the wavering stand of the adventurer Khrushchev), because the American imperialists will not apologize.
The international situation will be aggravated. On the problems of the international situation up till now Khrushchev has followed the road of opportunism, flattery and concessions towards American imperialism.
WEDNESDAY JUNE 8, 1960
KHRUSHCHEV'S SECOND LETTER - WHAT IS HIDDEN BEHIND HIS ACTIONS
I talked with Comrade Ramiz "Alia" about how we should prepare ourselves for the coming meeting in Bucharest.
I received the Soviet ambassador Ivanov who informed me that the proposed Bucharest meeting is postponed, and handed me a second letter from Khrushchev, dated June 7 which explains things. But this second letter requests that the representatives of the sister parties of the socialist camp should meet in Bucharest to decide the place and time when the coming meeting will be held. This business seems very complicated: "let us postpone" the meeting, and let us hold another, likewise, in Bucharest. Can there be some trickery behind this?! (After the savage attack launched at the 20th Congress of the CPSU (February 1956) by the Soviet leadership with Khrushchev at its head against Marxism-Leninism and against the work of Stalin through the ill-famed report against him, the Party of Labour of Albania watched attentively and carefully analysed each step of Khrushchev and his associates, who day by day stepped up their hostile activity against socialism and the international communist and workers' movement) in any case, the first thing I will discuss with the comrades of the Bureau is this: since the meeting of parties is being postponed, there is no need for me personally to go to Bucharest at the head of the delegations (Explaining why he did not go to the Meeting of Bucharest, Comrade Enver Hoxha pointed out to the 17th Plenum of the CC of the PLA (July 1960): "But why did the first secretaries of the parties of the socialist countries go to Bucharest, while I did not go? I did very well in not going, for I was carrying out the decision of the Political Bureau to avoid compromising our Party on questions that are not Marxist-Leninist. I would have presented there the opinions of the Political Bureau. which were very well transmitted by Hysni. My failure to go upset the Soviet leaders because everybody else went; only Enver did not go, because there was something fishy going on.,, (Enver Hoxha, Works, vol. 19, Alb. ed., "8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana 1975, p. 57.)). Another comrade should go, perhaps Comrade Hysni "Kapol" (The delegation of the Party of Labour of Albania, headed by Comrade Hysni Kapo, arrived in Bucharest on June 20, 1960) . He will take part in the Congress of the Rumanian Workers' Party, so let him take part also in the meeting of the representatives of communist parties to decide the place and time of the coming meeting.
TUESDAY JUNE 21, 1960
A MEETING WHICH IS TURNING INTO A PLOT
The meeting in Bucharest of representatives of communist and workers' parties who are attending the congress of the Rumanian Workers' Party is being transformed, in fact, into a plot against the Communist Party of China. We must smash this dangerous plot. (Contrary to the agreement reached, under which this meeting was to serve only as a preliminary gathering to decide the place and date of a meeting of the communist and workers' parties of the world, and in violation of all the Leninist organizational norms which governed the relations between communist parties, Khrushchev demanded that the meeting in Bucharest immediately discuss the disagreements which had arisen between the CPSU and the CP of China. As Comrade Enver Hoxha explains, through this plot hatched up in secret, Khrushchev, thinking that he had the Party of Labour of Albania in his pocket" and could subjugate it more easily, wanted to condemn the Communist Party of China and expel it from the world communist movement. But he was wrong in his calculations. .At the Bucharest meeting our Party played an important role. It was the only party to oppose what was being done there. And from then on the hostility against us, until then covert, came out in the open.. (Enver Hoxha. Works, vol. 19, Alb. ed., ."8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana 1975, p. 583))
WEDNESDAY JUNE 22, 1960
KHRUSHCHEV WILL NEVER DECEIVE THE PARTY OF LABOUR OF ALBANIA
I received a series of radiograms from Hysni, in which he informs me about the development of events in Bucharest.
It is more than clear to us that in order to defend his opportunist-revisionist views Nikita Khrushchev is attacking Marxism-Leninism. He is deceiving all the leaders and representatives of the communist and workers' parties in Bucharest and getting them into the net of the plot which he is hatching up. But Khrushchev will never deceive our Party!.
I reported to the Political Bureau, informing it of what Hysni reported to me from Bucharest (Published in: Enver Hoxha, Works, vol. 19, Alb. ed., "8 Nentori" Publishing House Tirana 1975, p. 2). After carefully analysing the situation created, we decided what stand Hysni must adopt in the meeting, and communicated this to him urgently (Ibidem p. 8).
MONDAY JUNE 27, 1960
OUR STRUGGLE AGAINST THE NEW, DISGUISED REVISIONISTS HAS BEGUN
Soviet ambassador Ivanov, who as always aims to feel our pulse, continues to come to me, but he goes away empty-handed.
Hysni returned from Rumania today and reported to us at length on the Meeting in Bucharest. This Meeting is a black stain on the history of the international communist movement. There Khrushchev and company revealed their real faces as renegades.
Thus, our struggle against the new, disguised revisionists has begun. It will be a long and difficult struggle, but we are not afraid of it, and we have the unshakeable conviction that we shall triumph, because we are on the right Marxist-Leninist road.
DAJT, SATURDAY AUGUST 6, 1960
THOREZ HAS STILL NOT BEGUN TO HAVE DOUBTS ABOUT THE COURSE ON WHICH KHRUSHCHEV IS LEADING THE SOVIET UNION
Today I went to Duress where I met Maurice Thorez (Former general secretary of the French Communist Party; at that time he was on holiday in Albania) and talked with him about all the vile things which the Soviet ambassador and his associates are doing against our Party. He was indignant and told me that we must not allow them to do such things. When I told him of the measures we had taken to have them removed, he considered these measures correct, but doubted whether the Soviet leaders were aware of these acts which the Soviet diplomats are committing here. I told him that he should have no doubt about that, because everything is done on orders from Moscow. Moreover, I told him about all the ideological and political disagreements which we have with the Soviet leadership. He listened to me attentively and said that these things must be put in order.
My belief is that Thorez has still not begun to have doubts about the terrible course on which Khrushchev is leading the Soviet Union. It will be a headache to him later!
TUESDAY AUGUST 16, 1960
THEY SUMMON US TO MOSCOW TO FORCE US TO CAPITULATE
In a letter sent to us the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union invites a delegation of our Party to go to Moscow to discuss the disagreements which emerged at Bucharest. The Soviet leaders motivate this invitation with the need for "the Party of Labour of Albania and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to go to the coming meeting. In November with complete unity of opinions". This means that they are summoning us to Moscow so that we capitulate to them and set ourselves against Marxism-Leninism, like Khrushchev and company. This is a vile, hostile, Trotskyite manoeuvre on their side.
Everything confirms that the present Soviet leadership, headed by Khrushchev, is galloping down the revisionist road.
KHRUSHCHEV AND HIS COLLEAGUES INCREASE
THE PRESSURE ON US
More and more each day Khrushchev and his colleagues are displaying the hostility which they have long nurtured towards us. Because of the catastrophic drought this year, some time ago we sought grain from the Soviets, Bulgarians and Rumanians. The Soviets have replied that they will supply only one fifth of the quantity we asked for, and even this after November. This stand of theirs means pressure on us ("In their efforts to overcome the resistance of the PLA and the Albanian people, the Khrushchevites abandoned every scruple, going so far as to threaten our country with the blockade to starve us. These rabid enemies of socialism and of the Albanian people, in particular, refused to supply us with grain at a time when our bread grain reserves were sufficient for only 15 days... 'Why worry yourselves about bread grain?' Krushchev had said to us. 'Plant citrus-trees. The mice in our granaries eat :as much grain as Albania needs.' And when the Albanian people were in danger of being left without bread, Khrushchev preferred to feed the mice and not the Albanians. According to him, there were only two roads for us: either submit or die. This was the cynical logic of this traitor" (Enver Hoxha, The Khrushchevites (Memoirs), 2nd Eng. ed, "8 Nentori" Publishing House. Tirana 1984, pp. 409, 410.)). The Bulgarians supplied one third of what we asked for, while the Rumanians sent us none at all, although this year they are exporting grain to the West.
FRIDAY OCTOBER 7,1960
WE ARE NOT FOR SERENADE NOCTURNE
Hysni sent me the speech which Deng Xiaoping delivered on October 5, at the meeting of the Commission editing documents for the November meeting. I read it and, in my opinion, although, in general, the problems are presented well, the tone of the speech is conciliatory. As a beginning this speech could be considered a "prelude", but if it does not burst out with force, like Beethoven's symphonies, then it will be turned into a "serenade nocturne".
In fact, if the Soviets are interested in closing things up and putting the lid on their anti-Marxist activities, and they have this interest, they have a good opportunity to grasp at this speech, to make the corrections sought in one way or another, and to pass over the issues under the slogan, "We agree we should not engage in polemics" and thus dodge the debate and principled discussion.
Four or five days ago, too, after a talk which he had had with the Chinese comrades, Hysni informed me, amongst other things, that "our friend" (alluding to Deng) thinks we should not begin the polemics. These do not seem like good signs to me, however, let us wait and see.
I am informing Hysni of my opinions about Deng's speech in a letter (Published in: Enver Hoxha, Works, vol. 19, Alb. ed., act., "8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana 1975, 13. 302) which I am sending him on some matters which he must bear in mind in the proceedings of the Commission.
MOSCOW, TUESDAY NOVEMBER 8, 1964
A DISHONOURABLE AND ANTI-MARXIST ACT BY KHRUSHCHEV
Nikita Khrushchev invited me to meet him. In fact, we had decided that I should go to this meeting as Nikita asked, although we knew he would try to carry out the tactic of the split; however, this arch-revisionist cannot breach our unity. Today, however, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union handed to us a long letter which it had sent to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on November 5, 1960 and also distributed to all the delegations participating in the Moscow Meeting of Communist and Workers' parties. While reading this letter, precisely when I was preparing to go to the meeting, I saw that our ,country did not figure in the list of socialist countries. I saw, also, that our Central Committee was attacked there and accused of operating with anti-democratic methods against Liri Belishova and Koço simply because they are "friends" of the Soviet Union, and other slanders. Then I called Andropov and told him I refused to go to meet Nikita Khrushchev, because, in a dishonourable, non-Marxist and slanderous way and without waiting to talk to me first, he had attacked our Party through an official international document in order to discredit our Party in the eyes of the international communist movement. This action of Nikita Khrushchev meant not only that he had attacked us, but, in fact, had created unequal conditions for the talks (Published in: Enver Hoxha, Works, vol. 19, Alb, ed., "8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana 1975. p. 355.)
MOSCOW, THURSDAY NOVEMBER 10, 1960
THE MEETING OF THE 81 COMMUNIST AND WORKERS' PARTIES OF THE WORLD HAS BEGUN
The Moscow Meeting of the 81 communist and workers' parties of the world has begun in the "Georgevski" Hall, We have been allocated the place near the tribune (for a purpose) (Comrade Enver Hoxha writes: "There was a tense atmosphere when the meeting opened, Not without a purpose they had put us near the speaker's rostrum so that we would be under the reproving finger of the anti-Marxist Khrushchevite 'prosecutors'. But, contrary to their desires, we became the prosecutors and accusers of the renegades and the traitors. They were in the dock. We held our heads high because we were with Marxism-Leninism. Khrushchev held his head in his two hands, when the bombs of our Party burst upon him.. (Enver Hoxha, The Khrushchevites (Memoirs), 2nd Eng. ed., "8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana, 1984, pp. 437-438.)), in the same row as the Koreans. The atmosphere prevailing in the hall was suffocating, like before the outbreak of a storm.
Suslov was the first speaker. He delivered a report on behalf of the Commission which prepared the draft of the declaration.
Today Mikoyan, Kozlov, Suslov, Pospyelov and Andropov came to Zarechie for a meeting. From our side all were present. A dreadful talk (Published in: Enver Hoxha, Works, vol, 19, Alb. ed., .8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana 1975, p. 358).
Khrushchev's envoys came to deceive us and to persuade. us to abandon our views and not raise them in the Meeting of the 81 communist and workers' parties. Not only are they aware of the disagreements which exist between our two parties, because they themselves have caused and are the authors of these disagreements, but Maurice Thorez has informed them about the stand that we shall maintain at the Meeting. They are terrified of this correct, clear, unmasking stand of ours.
The Soviets are employing all their manoeuvres in the contacts and meetings which we have had with them up till now, They are doing this solely to make us yield, but it is useless: at first they attacked us, then they pretended to soften, even made tactical retreats, "acknowledged" a series of faults, tried to butter us up, and even tried to make differentiations amongst us. But every time they received blows they had never even dreamed of from us.
These meetings are proving very well that right is on our side and that we have to deal with revisionists, tricksters, hypocrites, swindlers, shameless individuals that are selling out Marxism-Leninism. They went away from the first meeting with us empty-handed and with "bruised" faces.
MOSCOW, SATURDAY NOVEMBER 12, 1960
STORMY MEETING WITH THE SOVIET LEADERS
At the Meeting of 81 parties the discussion continues and he intrigues of the Soviets continue, also. behind the scenes.
The Soviets have run into trouble with us. Yesterday they sought anew meeting in the Kremlin, this time with delegates of the Presidium of their Central Committee. We went to this meeting. From the Soviet side Khrushchev, Mikoyan. Kozlov, Andropov and others were present. Right from the outset Khrushchev tried to place us in the dock. But we put him there. He declared that he would not withdraw anything that he had said against us and even exerted military pressure by threatening that he might withdraw the naval base from Vlora. But we attacked him hard on this issue and exposed his aims. In a tight spot, he compared the way I spoke to him with the way MacMillan had spoken to him. Then, Comrade Hysni demanded that Khrushchev withdraw this base insult and after this we all stood up, broke off the talks and left the room.
Everything proves that Nikita Khrushchev is a dangerous revisionist. Therefore, we must be very, very vigilant towards him and his group!
MOSCOW, WEDNESDAY NOVEMBER 16,1969
WE HAVE DONE OUR SACRED DUTY TO MARXISM-LENINISM
This morning I delivered my speech (See: Enver Hoxha, Selected Works, vol. Ill. Eng. ed,, -R Nentori" Publishing House. Tirana 1980. pp. 93-163) to the meeting of the 81 communist and workers' parties of the world which is being held here in Moscow. The speech which lasted about two hours was heard in silence. No interruption, no interjection from Khrushchev.
So, everything went in order. In this way we have done a sacred duty to our Party, to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and to the entire communist and workers' movement. We are on the correct Marxist-Leninist road. Time will confirm everything we said. We have taken account of everything, every attack and villainy that may be perpetrated against us. Marxism-Leninism must be defended at all costs and our Party is defending it.
In the afternoon I rested.
My comrades informed me that at the afternoon session of the Meeting, Dolores Ibarruri, "la Passionaria", was the first to launch the unprincipled attack against us. She made a disgraceful attack. But it neither hurts nor shakes us. "Let the dogs bark, the caravan goes forward!"
WEDNESDAY JANUARY 18, 1961
THE KHRUSHCHEVITE REVISIONISTS EXERT ECONOMIC PRESSURE ON ALBANIA
Through our embassy in Moscow, we sent the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union the letter of the Central Committee of our Party (Published in: Enver Hoxha, Works, vol. 20, Alb., act., "8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana 1976, p. 27) in reply to the note the Soviet government sent us a few days ago on the question of economic relations between our two countries.
In our letter we refer to the shameless pressure the Soviet government is exerting on our Party and government, by demanding that we send a top-level party and government delegation to Moscow in order to re-examine the question of credits, which in fact has already been discussed and settled at top-level meetings of representatives of the parties and governments of both countries. We reject their proposals, while, at the same time, demanding that the vice-chairman of the Council of Ministers and president of the State Planning Commission go there just to sign the clearing agreement for the years 1961-1965, which has not yet been signed. Everything else between the two sides has been already settled. In this letter we make it clear that the Soviet government raises the questions in a distorted manner which can be rightly taken as economic pressure exerted by the Soviet leadership on our state and on the Party of Labour of Albania on the eve of our 4th Congress (The 4th Congress of the PLA held its proceedings from 13 to 20 February. 1961), in order to create economic difficulties for us.
By demanding that we go to Moscow, Khrushchev wants to impose his will and anti-Marxist views on us. In other words, with his demand he wants to say: "Either your 4th Congress will be held in full conformity with what I dictate to you, or the economic agreements we have already signed become invalid". Thus, in the opinion of this adventurer and blackmailer, our Congress cannot be held.
But we are not afraid of the threats of the Soviet revisionists. We will hold the Congress and deal the Khrushchevites a crushing political-ideological blow.
SATURDAY JANUARY 21,1901
THE SOVIETS HAVE BEGUN TO WITHDRAW THEIR SPECIALISTS
Today the Soviet government, through an official of GUES (Government Office for Economic Co-ordination) informed our Minister of Industry, Adil Çarçani, that it is withdrawing 20-25 Soviet specialists who are working in the oil sector under the pretext that "the period of their stay has ended".. It is true that the period of the stay of those specialists in Albania has ended, but for four months our side has been officially requesting the Soviet government to extend this period. The Soviet official told Adil that the Soviet specialists will leave Albania within five days.
A similar thing is occurring with a group of military technicians at the Vlora base. With the work still unfinished, because the necessary materials have not come from the Soviet Union, they were notified to leave our country. These activities undertaken on orders from the Soviet leadership show that the hostile pressure is being stepped up before our Congress. Therefore, it is necessary that we unmask every hostile action of theirs, as they deserve, and that we inform the Soviet leaders by letter that they bear responsibility for everything they are doing in this direction.
FRIDAY FEBRUARY 10, 1961
KHRUSHCHEVS MEN ORGANIZE COUPS D'ETAT THE SAME AS THE CIA AGENTS
At the meeting we had at the Central Committee with the delegation of the Labour Party of Korea which has come to our country to take part in the proceedings of the 4th Congress of the PLA, the head of the delegation spoke very well of our Party. He also told us that "that same Ivanov, who was ambassador of the Soviet Union in your country, when ambassador in our country, Korea, in 1956, organize the armed counter-revolution together with a revisionist group, to topple our leadership." What bandits Khrushchev's men are! Like the CIA agents who organize coups d'état throughout the world.
MONDAY MARCH 20, 1961
KHRUSHCHEV AND THE SOVIET LEADERSHIP ARE TRYING TO COMPROMISE US THROUGH THEIR TRICKERY AND ACTIONS
I received Soviet ambassador J. V. Shikin, who handed me a letter from the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, in which it is proposed that the meeting of the Political Consultative Committee of the member countries of the Warsaw Treaty should he held on 28th and 29th of this month. The letter says that the meeting should be held at the top level, that is, with the participation of the first secretaries, prime ministers, ministers of foreign affairs and defence, and chairmen of the planning commissions of each member state.
There are two reports on the agenda: the report of Marshal Grechko on the state of the armies of the member countries of the Warsaw Treaty, and that of the chairman of the Planning Commission of the Soviet Union on the armaments industry and the distribution of weapons.
I asked the ambassador whether there would be a political report at that meeting, and if so, who would deliver it and what the theses were. While asking some other questions "for clarification", I pointed out that before approval was sought from us the theses of the reports and the draft-resolutions of the meeting must be sent to US so that we could go there prepared and not just to say that we had attended.
He did not reply to the questions I asked, because he did not know what to say, but promised that he would refer the matters I raised to Moscow. As can be seen, the only concern of Moscow and the ambassador is whether we agree unquestioningly that the meeting should be held on the date that they set and whether I shall go there.
Those few meetings of the Warsaw Treaty which have been held up till now have been completely formal. technical meetings without any significance, just to be able to say that a meeting of the Treaty had been held. And this which is summoned now is of a similar nature. Nikita Khrushchev is holding this meeting on account of his plans in the international arena, while as to the deals and combinations which he is hatching up, no one demands an accounting from him. Khrushchev is holding up and refusing supplies of weapons for us. Meanwhile, his aim in asking me to go to Moscow is to make us cover up his sinister plans. However, I shall not go, not only because the matters which will be discussed at that meeting are simply technical military questions for the minister of defence, but also because of all the base and hostile attitudes which all the members of the Warsaw Treaty maintain towards our Party and country.
Of course the provision of weapons has very great importance for us, but they could be supplied to us without any need for us to meet, as Khrushchev demands, because there are agreements on this. This meeting must certainly have political aims, but Nikita will present the political issues in the way that interests him. He will present them as matters of secondary importance that happen to crop up (while they are decisive), i.e., without official reports and decisions, because he violates even those decisions which he himself demands. He pretends to consult the others (while he doesn't do even this with us), and then does whatever he pleases. These actions of Khrushchev's are scandalous and dangerous not only for our socialist countries, but also for all mankind.
A similar procedure was followed at a meeting of this nature a year ago. There Nikita began to talk against the imperialists and, indeed, a decision was taken on the question of the peace treaty with Germany, that we, the socialist states, must "put the imperialists with their backs to the wall" by signing a peace treaty with Democratic Germany, etc. But not one decision of this meeting was carried out because Nikita Khrushchev trampled on them.
The same thing will occur with this meeting, too. Khrushchev's actions are insulting and destructive. He demands that we sing the descant to his tune and compromise ourselves in his trickery. But we won't swallow this. Enough of his lies!
TUESDAY MARCH 28, 1961
GRECHKO THREATENS AND TRIES TO FRIGHTEN US
At 5 a.m. I received a radiogram from our delegation which is in Moscow to take part in the meeting of the Political Consultative Committee of the member countries of the Warsaw Treaty. The delegation reports that at 23 hours yesterday Marshal Grechko had handed them a letter with aims of intimidation and blackmail. In it he threatened that if we do not agree that the Vlora base should become entirely Soviet and that all the ships should be taken over completely by the Soviets, then he will raise this question at the meeting of the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Treaty and ask the Soviet government to remove the base from Vlora (Grechko, then commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Warsaw Treaty, deliberately delivered the letter very late so that the Albanian delegation would not have time to prepare Its reply about the question of the base of Vlora. Grechko's letter was completely contrary to the agreements reached in the framework of the Warsaw Treaty, under which the naval ships of this base would be handed over to the PR of Albania after a short period).
As can be seen, this threatening Soviet demand is similar to the earlier Titoite demand about the dispatch of the "famous" Yugoslav divisions to Albania (), a thing which had as its aim the occupation of Albania (In January 1948, inventing the pretext of the threat of an imminent attack of Greece against Albania the Yugoslav revisionist leadership presented the urgent demand of sending some divisions of the Yugoslav army to Albania in order to make the military occupation of Albania an accomplished fact. This plan of the Titoite leadership failed in face of the determination of the CPA and Comrade Enver Hoxha who did not allow the Yugoslav troops to enter Albania, (See: Enver Hoxha, The Titoites (Historical Notes), Eng. ed., "8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana 1982, pp. 439-446.)). It is clear that the Khrushchev government has the same aim. The Soviets want to violate the treaties and agreements which have been signed, to have Vlora as their base and do whatever they want there. But we will never let them get away with these things. Therefore, I instructed the comrades of the delegation that they should reply to the Soviets blow for blow (The radiogram which Comrade Enver Hoxha sent to the Albanian delegation attending the meeting of the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Treaty, on March 28, 1961 at 7.30, pointed out:
"The question of the base: The Albanian government refuses to permit the slightest alteration to the existing status quo defined in the official agreement between the two governments... You must emphasize that any decision they may take in regard to the removal of the base and the failure to supply it with armaments according to agreements and contracts, weakens the defence of the socialist camp and Albania, and the entire responsibility for this falls on them.. (Published In: Enver Hoxha Works, vol. 20. Alb. ed., "8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana 1976, pp. 368-369.)), and Grechko received his reply today, March 28, before he could deliver this report to the meeting.
In fact, in his report Marshal Grechko did not mention the question of the base at all. Apparently, at least our reply made the Marshal retreat from his vile act. We shall see what Khrushchev and the other participants have to say when they make their speeches. However they act, we have our reply ready. Whoever dares harm the interests of our people, our Homeland and our Party, will get such a blow as they will never forget.
TUESDAY APRIL 4, 1961
WE MUST DENOUNCE THE VISIT OF THE AMERICAN 6th FLEET TO YUGOSLAV PORTS
I had another look at my article(Published in the newspaper Zeri i popullit on April 8, 1961 order the title "Warships of the American 6th Fleet in the Yugoslav ports") on the visit of the commander of the American 6th Fleet to Yugoslav ports. I altered the title of the article and placed more stress on some parts of it, especially the part that speaks about the joint plots which the Yugoslavs and Americans are hatching up against our country.
Among of her things, I stressed that visits of this nature by naval units and admirals of the American 6th Fleet to Yugoslav waters and ports are not taking place for the first time and are not accidental. The American navy sails the waters of the. Mediterranean and the Adriatic with "haughty" aggressiveness, as if they were the territorial waters of the USA.
It is evident that the commander of the American 6th Fleet is not going to Yugoslavia on a tourists visit on a, cruiser equipped with telecommanded missiles and with 1.000 marines on board. He is going to his friends, to those who have a common language with him.
Rear-admiral George Anderson is visiting Yugoslavia only a few weeks after we publicly denounced from the tribune of the 4th Congress of the PLA the dangerous plot hatched up against the independence of Albania by Yugoslavia and Greek reaction in collaboration with the American 6th Fleet, and some Albanian traitors, a plot which was crushed and which blew up in their hands.
Everyone knows that the American 6th Fleet is the main aggressive striking force of American imperialism and NATO in the Mediterranean. It is on continual patrol, demonstrating and threatening, trying to show the peoples around the Mediterranean shores that any attempt of theirs to win freedom and for a better life will be replied to with the weapons of that fleet and the bayonets of the marines :aboard the cruisers. The American 6th Fleet is always ready to hurl itself furiously against the independence of the peoples. The events in the Near East and the landing of the marines in Lebanon demonstrated this clearly.
The peoples are watching this activity of the American imperialists and their allies with vigilance. The vigilance of the Albanian people and their Party of Labour is becoming ever greater. The new Albania of the people will never forget its national and internationalist duties.
WEDNESDAY APRIL 5, 1961
WE WILL NEVER ALLOW VLORA TO BE OCCUPIED BY SOVIET TROOPS
We handed the ambassadors of the countries of people's democracy and of the Soviet Union the letter of our government to their governments in connection with the meeting of the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Treaty and the decision taken there on the future of the Vlora base (At this meeting Khrushchev and his followers took the decision to cut off all arms supplies and economic aid accorded to the PR of Albania on the basis of previously signed agreements, and to dismantle the naval base of Vlora). We make it clear in the letter that we refuse to allow the Soviets to take control of the Vlora base. The warships of the base must be handed over to us as soon as possible, because, on the basis of existing agreements, they belong to us. Otherwise our government demands that the Soviet military personnel be withdrawn from the base because in this situation this would be the best and most desirable solution for us. We will never allow Vlora to be occupied by Soviet troops. We will defend ourselves against the imperialist danger even without the base, but if we accept Khrushchev's demand the Vlora base will become a great danger to the independence of our Homeland and of the neighbouring countries...
MONDAY APRIL 17, 1901
THE AMERICAN IMPERIALISTS ATTACK CUBA
At 5 o'clock this morning the Americans and the Cuban mercenaries attacked Cuba. (On April 15 and 16, American "B-26" aircraft bombed Havana and some other Cuban cities. Landings were made at different points in Oriente province, including the Bay of Pigs) The fighting began. The heroic Cuban people will not be conquered!
Khrushchev's empty boasting that he would launch his missiles were shown up for what they arc in reality How false sounds the famous "peaceful road" for the taking of power which the revisionists Khrushchev, Gomulka, Togliatti and company preach! Not only will the bourgeoisie not relinquish power, unless it is seized by violence, but even when you have seized it by violence, the bourgeoisie will attack you to rob you of it, Cuba will suffer, but the great betrayal of the revisionists, headed by Khrushchev and company, will be exposed in the eyes of the peoples and the genuine communists.
THURSDAY APRIL 20, 1961
The Cubans triumphed. The attack of the American imperialists and their mercenaries was smashed and the counter-revolutionaries were wiped out. Castro announced this today.
A brilliant victory! A great victory for Cuba, a great victory for us and the revolution, in general. Confirmation of the correct line of our Party, defeat for the opportunist-revisionist line of Khrushchev and company, defeat for the policy of flattery, smiles and concessions to the imperialists. Defeat for the American imperialists. The plans of the American imperialists, Yugoslav revisionists and the Greek monarcho-fascists who are plotting against us will be defeated in the same way.
Our people and all the revolutionary peoples can never be conquered. The enemies will always be unmasked!
FRIDAY APRIL 21, 1961
A BASE AND SHAMEFUL ACT ON THE PART OF THE SOVIETS
A base and shameful act of the Soviets has been reported to me. They ordered the ship which was unloading iron and other materials at Durres for the Palace of Culture in Tirana to reload these materials and take them back to the Soviet Union.
Only the imperialists and revisionists could show such hostility as this towards our people and country. Never mind, we shall advance, but woe betide the fraternal Soviet people who have fallen into the hands of these unscrupulous bandits who have seized power in the Soviet Union!
FRIDAY JUNE 2, 1961
THE REVISIONIST CHIEFS PIN GREAT HOPES ON KRHUSHCHEV'S MEETING WITH KENNEDY (The meeting between Khrushchev and Kennedy to discuss Soviet-American relations and some questions on the banning of nuclear tests, disarmament and the German question was held on June 3-4, 1961 in Vienna)
Khrushchev set out for Vienna. On the way he stopped in Czechoslovakia where he was welcomed by the "great friend", of the Soviet Union, Novotny. We are informed that Dej, Zhivko (Derogative diminutive for Todor Zhivcor) and Kadar were also in Bratislava, incognito.
Khrushchev does not even deign to inform us about the hash he will cook up in Vienna. All the better! Let the revisionists themselves bear the responsibility!
The revisionist chiefs of the camp have pinned great hopes on this meeting. Indeed, they are living in the hope of some concession from Kennedy, while he is demanding that they make more concessions to him. And the revisionist chiefs will make him more concessions. They will certainly be exposed for their treachery!
TUESDAY JUNE 6, 1901
A FIASCO MEETING
Today at midnight Kennedy made a statement on the talks he held with Khrushchev in Vienna. Their meeting was a fiasco. They agreed on nothing. As for the question of Laos, which is one of the questions on which they allegedly "agreed", nothing will be done about it, either. The Americans will certainly spoil things. The Vienna meeting had no aim other than the loud propaganda which both Kennedy and Khrushchev need in order to raise a smokescreen and hide their dirty linen.
DAJT, THURSDAY JULY 20, 1961
KHRUSHCHEV IS ALSO A COWARD
The imperialists continue to make threats over Berlin, while Khrushchev, who follows a personal policy of conciliation and who usually delivers speeches at the rate of one per hour, has shut himself up in Sochi and is saying nothing. We shall see how he will act. Certainly, he does not like these tense situations because he is also a coward. As our Party has said, only a resolute stand makes the imperialists pull back in panic. There is no other remedy. Any other action is a retreat and capitulation to the imperialists.
DURRES, TUESDAY JULY 25, 1961
Kennedy made a very threatening speech on the question of Berlin. He must be given a powerful reply. We will give him a bowl (On 29 July 1961 the newspaper Zeri i popullit published the article entitled, "President Kennedy is brandishing his weapons..." which points out: "...The use of the question of West Berlin to fan up the fire of the 'cold war' is a well-known and discredited tactic of the imperialist powers. Kennedy and his NATO allies never tire of screaming about the 'legitimate rights' of the western powers to stay in West Berlin and the 'capability of the USA to fulfil its pledge' to the population of that city and its NATO partners... The question of West Berlin must be solved in one way or another. This city cannot be kept occupied forever. The occupation forces must leave West Berlin at all costs. West Berlin now is by no means 'a city of peace', as Mr. President claims, but a hotbed of tension and dangerous provocation..."), although it may seem like a slap at an elephant. The revisionist Khrushchev ought to reply to him. We shall see what he will do. His satellites. of course, will wait until the master speaks.
DAJT, FRIDAY AUGUST 4, 1961
FLAGRANT TROTSKYITE VIOLATION OF EVERY NORM OF MARXISM AND EQUALITY
Ramiz returned from Moscow and reported on the meeting of representatives of communist and workers' parties of the member countries of the Warsaw Treaty on the question of the Peace Treaty with Germany. They expelled him from the meeting in the vilest way (The delegation of flip PLA to this meeting, which was held on August 3-5, 1961 in Moscow, was headed by Comrade Ramiz Alia at that time member of the Political Bureau and Secretary of the CC of the PLA. As they had done, at the previous meetings, the Soviet revisionist leaders and their supporters made this base provocation with the aim of humiliating the PLA and denying its incontestable right to have its say about such an important problem as the German problem). They did not give him the floor, did not allow him to speak. The bandit Khrushchev, in a scandalous way, prevented him from speaking, although there was a sharp debate on this between Ramiz and Khrushchev (Even though Khrushchev interrupted him at every word, Comrade Ramiz Alia condemned this action as a hostile antimarxist action and stressed that the PLA has never been and is not afraid of anyone... it has been and is determined that the question of the peace treaty with Germany should he concluded as soon as possible. As Comrade Enver Hoxha points out, "this meeting. like the meetings of Bucharest and Moscow, held in 1960, will be remembered in the history of the international communist and workers' movement, in the history of the socialist camp, not only for the anti-Marxist and revisionist stands of Khrushchev and company, but also for the resolute, principled, Marxist-Leninist stand maintained by a small party, the Party of Labour of Albania..." (Enver Hoxha, Works, vol. 21, Alb. ed., "8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana 1976, p. 422)). Ulbricht proposed our expulsion from the meeting and the sending of a hostile letter to the Central Committee of our Party, a thing which was approved by all the others, with the exception of the Chinese ambassador who did not speak on the first day, because he was not given the floor, and neither were the Korean, the Vietnamese or the Mongolian, who were there as observers...
Khrushchev and his supporters are bandits. They trample on every norm of Marxism, every norm of equality. They are fascists in the full sense of the word, but they will suffer the consequences; We shall mercilessly expose these renegades disguised as communists. They are multiplying their mistakes every day and, thus, confirming our correct theses. Through these actions, in practice, they have excluded us from the Warsaw Treaty and the meetings of parties of the countries of the Warsaw Treaty. They have not done this legally and openly as yet, because they are afraid. But they may do it and then they must expect our public attack. They even published a falsified communiqué which we are not publishing (The communiqué stated shamelessly and falsely that the meeting was attended by all the first secretaries of the central committees of the communist and workers' parties of the Warsaw Treaty. In view of the fact that this assertion did not respond to the truth, the CC of the PLA decided not to publish this communiqué), but we shall publish the speech which Ramiz was to deliver at the meeting and which we sent to the revisionist plotters in Moscow through diplomatic channels.
FRIDAY OCTOBER 24, 1961
THE POLITICAL BUREAU APPROVES THE STATEMENT AGAINST THE MODERN REVISIONISTS' ATTACKS
Today we held the meeting of the Political Bureau, In my contribution (Published in, Enver Hoxha, Works, vol. 22. Alb. Ed., "8 Nentori" Publishing House. Tirana 1976, p. 55). I pointed out that, after the open attacks by the Soviet revisionists on our Party and country at their 22nd Congress, for our Party the stage of maintaining our reserve is over and we must reply to their attacks. I proposed that a statement should be made in the name of the Central Committee of the Party and that we publish it in the press.
After expressing their opinions in the discussion, all the comrades unanimously approved the text of the draftstaternent (Published in: Principal Documents of the PLA, vol. 4. Alb. -8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana 1970. p. 153).
At the 22nd Congress of the Soviet revisionists the delegates of foreign parties are continuing their attacks on our Party. The Khrushchevite plot is concocted. The Trotskyites will be unmasked.
SATURDAY NOVEMBER 25,1961
THEY TRY TO INTIMIDATE US, WE TERRIFY THEM
The Soviet government is continuing its hostile acts against our country. It announced that it is withdrawing its ambassador from Albania, allegedly because we do not provide him with conditions in which to work. Base slanders, as usual. In fact, it is about ten months since the ambassador left. The Soviet embassy in Tirana has about 80 people engaged in nothing but espionage and sabotage against our Party and country. They try to frighten us, but we terrify them.
Disguising his activities under the great authority of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev is making major concessions to the imperialists so that his revisionist counterrevolutionary pacifist line will triumph. He and his cronies are saying almost nothing, have toned down the struggle against imperialism, headed by American imperialism. Khrushchev is making great efforts to let Kennedy and his group know and convince them that they should not be afraid of the Soviet Union and that they could come to terms if Kennedy makes a few concessions in response to Khrushchevs major concessions in order to arrive at a modus vivendi. Khrushchev and his henchmen have aimed their propaganda against Bonn and are completely avoiding bringing out the responsibility of the United States of America in arming it. On the other hand. Khrushchev and his group are attacking us, indirectly attacking China, defending India. inciting it against other countries, and making approaches to Tito. All these are bouquets of flowers for Kennedy who is not satisfied with empty words, but is demanding that Khrushchev make still more concrete concessions. Khrushchev is trying to split the alliances by making concessions to imperialists, but the Americans will get their hands on his throat. Time will prove everything. Khrushchev is a traitor to communism.
SUNDAY DECEMBER 3, 1961
THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT HAS BROKEN OFF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH US
Through our embassy in Moscow, the Soviet government informed us that it has broken off diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of Albania. This is an unheardof, unprecedented hostile act, but it comes as no surprise to us. We had foreseen and knew that the enemies would go as far as this and would try to go even further if they could (In the discussion of the question of the breaking off of the diplomatic relations between the USSR and the PRA by the Soviet revisionist leadership, held at the meeting of the Political Bureau of the CC of the PLA on December 5, 1901, Comrade Enver Hoxha pointed out: "Now there remains nothing for Khrushchev but to expel Albania from the Warsaw Treats, and to order the Soviet army to attack the People's Republic of Albania. But it is not easy for him to do this, ... one thing is quite clear: today at the head of the Soviet government there are fascist elements who are striving in every way to hatch up all kinds of plans against the Albanian people" (Enver Hoxha, Works, vol. 22, Alb. ed, "8 Nentori" Publishing House. Tirana 1976, pp. 401-402)). Although this act gravely damages the friendship between the Albanian people and the Soviet peoples, it is to the detriment of its authors. They are unmasking themselves in the eyes of the whole world by breaking off diplomatic relations with a friendly, allied country of people's democracy, a socialist country, while they maintain relations with and embrace the imperialists, the fascists, the Titoites, and others.
SUNDAY DECEMBER 31, 1961
PANORAMA OF THE YEAR 1961
The year 1961 has been a year of struggle and efforts for the strengthening and defence of our Party, for the defence of the People's Republic of Albania, for the defence of Marxism-Leninism, for the fulfilment of the economic plan and the improvement of the life of our people. I can say that we achieved all these objectives successfully...
The Party of Labour of Albania remains as strong as steel. Not the slightest wavering among its members. The correct line and stand of the Central Committee were, unanimously endorsed and embraced by all the Party members and non-members alike. The struggle of the Party in defence of the unity of its ranks, in defence of Marxism-Leninism, in defence of the Soviet Union of Lenin-Stalin, and the socialist camp was splendid. The diabolical plans, all the conspiratorial actions to repress, to strangle us, to stir up the counter-revolution in our country, all the attempts at economic, political and military blockades, the law of silence, etc., established by Nikita Khrushchev and the members of his counter-revolutionary group, were unmasked and thwarted. Thus Nikita Khrushchev was unable to achieve his vile purpose. He has been discredited in the communist movement and among world opinion as a traitor to Marxism-Leninism, the Soviet Union and the socialist camp.
Nikita Khrushchev went so far as to break off diplomatic relations with Albania. This discredited him more than anything. For nearly two years the traitor group of Nikita Khrushchev has been fighting us with all its means and power, but the result it has achieved is zero. The Party of Labour of Albania and our People's Republic stand proudly, unbowed and admired by all, because they are on the right Toad, because they are defending a just cause, because they are defending Marxism-Leninism, socialism, communism, freedom and peace in the world.
Nikita Khrushchev poses as a pacifist and a pacifist with a communist disguise, but he is a counter-revolutionary, a Trotskyite revisionist who serves imperialism and the bourgeoisie. The plan which he is trying to apply is intended to transform the Soviet Union into a revisionist state, to cause the degeneration of the Soviet state and Communist Party, to corrupt the youth and to demoralize the working class. If this traitor is not stopped on his course, the Soviet Union will be turned into a fascist police state. Khrushchev hides all his hostile activities under the great prestige of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Soviet socialist state. He relies also on the great economic potential which the Soviet Union has created.
Nikita Khrushchev is a revisionist coward. He is trying to reach a revisionist agreement with the American imperialists, wants reconciliation with them. Instead of resisting them with determination, he prefers to make them all sorts of concessions. Through the course on which he has set out he is weakening the economic, political, ideological and military strength of our camp, Khrushchev is preparing for even more open struggle against communism, if he is not stopped on his road.
In his relations with us Nikita Khrushchev revealed his real features as a traitor and an international bandit. He employed all kinds of counter-revolutionary tactics against us, from blandishments to the breaking-off of diplomatic, relations. But in the Party of Labour of Albania he found an insurmountable obstacle, his calculations turned out wrong. He thought he would deceive us or he would liquidate us. But he was able to do neither the one nor the other. In this situation, when we were uncovering his betrayal and his aims as a traitor to Marxism-Leninism, he mobilized all his forces, all his cronies and fellow-travellers in order to slander us, allegedly to unmask us. But as a result of the course of betrayal which he is pursuing, his actions and those of his associates and followers simply unmask him and. contrary to his wishes. confirm the correctness of our line, which has been expressed clearly in all the documents and in the daily struggle of the Party of Labour of Albania and our state.
In the attacks which he made on us at the 22nd Congress of the CPSU, Nikita Khrushchev emerged as a splitter of the socialist camp, as a violator of the Moscow Declarations. In fact, a great many other parties did not attack us, or did not speak about us, and by not speaking they defended us. A considerable number of those who danced to the Khrushchevites' tune did this under the pressure and even open blackmail of Khrushchev. At the 22nd Congress their unprincipled attacks on us were among the main issues for the Khrushchevite gang. This exposed the gang. After the congress the Soviet propaganda and Soviet rubles were mobilized totally against us. Many party leaders were compelled to say something, even half a word against our Party. All these things were immediately reproduced in the newspaper Pravda, but this exposed them and not us. Now people are asking, why is this happening? Is this Party of Labour of Albania, that all are attacking, so powerful?
This is the first flare-up. All Khrushchev's friends have had their turn, now tempers will cool. people will think and, indeed, they have begun to think seriously, about the things they have done and they are gradually abandoning the sinking ship.
The countries of people's democracy in Europe did not follow Nikita Khrushchev in breaking off diplomatic relations with Albania. Czechoslovakia, Hungary and East Germany withdrew only their ambassadors, but left all the rest of the staff and their charges d'affaires, while Bulgaria, Rumania and Poland have not even withdrawn their ambassadors up till now. Hence, here there is a differentiation, even if only temporary. With the exception of the Soviet Union, all these states are concluding trade contracts with us for the year 1962. That is another differentiation. We are convinced that time will work for us. Within their parties and states there is great confusion, discontent and splits, there is no unity and there can be no unity in them.
The leaderships of the communist and workers' parties of the countries of people's democracy are in an impasse, they are in opposition to the masses of their party members, and contradictions will increase. Each day and each year that passes the traitor course of Nikita Khrushchev will get them into deeper trouble.
The French Communist Party has taken this course, too, and so has that of Italy, the leadership of which has betrayed completely.
Albania is a bone which has stuck in Nikita Khrushchev's throat and is choking him so that he can hardly breathe, therefore Nikita Khrushchev is fighting us furiously. He thinks that the struggle against us will serve to intimidate his satellites, because he knows or guesses that sooner or later many of his present friends will turn their coats.
Nikita Khrushchev's traitor tactic at the moment consists of compromising his present friends as much as he can against us, to build up hostility against the genuine cornmunists in their parties, to subordinate the economies of those countries to the Soviet economy so that at the first movement "out of line", pressure will be exerted on them either to stay "in line" or leave their place for other Khrushchevites. Of course the process of division will take place and clashes will develop over this. But Nikita Khrushchev and the other revisionists do not take account of the strength of their peoples. They rely on deception and on the strength of the army and the security forces (which they have fought under the mask of the fight against the cult of the individual and allegedly from the positions of the dictatorship of the proletariat which, according to them, is no longer necessary). The lying propaganda and the real application of terror and reprisals, which have begun on a large scale, will undoubtedly bring them terrible and insoluble contradictions. This will be their undoing.
The revisionist line that they are applying can bring them no benefits at all, in either their internal or their external policies. On the contrary, they will suffer defeat I both at home and abroad, will be unmasked, isolated and destroyed, and although the struggle will be long, difficult and dangerous, we will triumph. Time is working for us. We are the majority. We have not lost our confidence in the bolsheviks of the Soviet Union. How is it possible for all those thousands of revolutionaries and fighters imbued with the teachings of Lenin and Stalin to fall asleep? We have hopes in their strength, we like them, and we are sorry for them, because they are experiencing difficult moments. The Party of Labour of Albania will struggle with all its might to show them the disaster to which the revisionist group of Khrushchev is leading them.
The relentless struggle against the Yugoslav and Soviet revisionists, the struggle against the traitor groups of Tito and Khrushchev, will be continued very sternly. We must and will fight the main enemies, the imperialists and modern revisionists, until they are completely destroyed. We are prepared and armed to accomplish the tasks of the new year 1962. As always, we shall safeguard the Party from any enemy. As always, we shall fight with the greatest severity to expose the traitors Tito and Khrushchev and their associates. We shall be more vigilant than ever to protect our borders and our dear socialist Homeland, shall fight unflinchingly to defend the purity of Marxism-Leninism and the unity of the socialist camp on the Marxist-Leninist road and not on a revisionist basis, as Khrushchev and his gang of lackeys want.
The American imperialists will strive to damage us, in particular. To this end they will be assisted by the modern revisionists, will incite he Greek monarcho-fascists the Yugoslav revisionists and others against us, but we shall foil all their diabolical plans. Socialist Albania will live and flourish because the heroic Party of Labour of Albania is leading and defending it gloriously.
THURSDAY JANUARY 4, 1962
THE PROBLEM OF GERMANY AND BERLIN A GREAT WORRY TO KHRUSHCHEV
The problem of Germany and Berlin began to be discussed en vase clos (behind closed doors (French in the original)) at the first meeting between Gromyko and Llewellyn Thompson, (The meeting was held on the basis of the decision taken on December 12, 1961, by the meeting of Foreign Ministers of the Western countries, and approved by the Council of Ministers of NATO, on the resumption of contacts with the Soviet government over the question of Berlin) the ambassador of the United States of America in Moscow. Everything is being kept secret. The Khrushchevite diplomacy has now switched to "secret diplomacy" while through these talks the Americans are speculating, gaining time, making deals, feeling the pulse, exerting blackmail and threats. The reactionary French press advises that "Khrushchev should be protected because he is the most suitable person", for the imperialists, of course.
Ulbricht also put in his spoke and said, "We shall do everything to safeguard the prestige of the Westerners". These revisionist traitors have gone as far as this. The problem of Germany and Berlin has become a major worry for Khrushchev and Co. They don't know which way to move. All directions are bad for them. They will continue the talks and, in the end, make concession after concession to imperialism. Khrushchev and his gang are working to defeat the communist forces, therefore the communists must defeat him and all his followers.
SUNDAY FEBRUARY 4, 1962
The Western news agencies say that the latest Soviet proposal to the Americans is that "Berlin should become a separate states" There were two Germanies, now they propose to make them three (the third within the second). The Soviets have the experience of "Matryoshka" - the dolls which fit one inside the other, and all into a big one. They are droll rascals!
MONDAY FEBRUARY 12, 1962
KHRUSHCHEV'S PACIFIST SLOGANS ON DISARMAMENT PREPARE THE TERRAIN FOR IMPERIALIST WARS
As a counter-proposal to the meeting of foreign ministers on disarmament which the Western powers have proposed to be held in Geneva on March 14, Khrushchev proposed a top-level meeting on disarmament with the participation of 18 states. Of course this proposal proved unsuccessful, as it was bound to do. Today the Westerners replied that they do not accept it, "but will keep it in mind for later" after "the meeting of the foreign ministers has been held," etc. This was the reply that Khrushchev expected, because the aim of the Khrushchevites is to deceive the public which is waiting for a solution. Thus they leave the public hoping that this meeting "will be held today or tomorrows", and "if not, then be patient because it will certainly be held the day after tomorrow", and so on. Meanwhil, nothing is being solved. Imperialism gains time, arms itself, suppresses the peoples' antiimperialist movements and consolidates its alliances, while Khrushchev weakens our alliances, deepens the split in the socialist camp, and prepares the war against communism. It is clear that, although in somewhat different forms, the Westerners have the same essential aim as Khrushchev. One side prepares the war while the other, through its pacifist slogans, prepares the terrain for this war and for the imperialist revisionist embrace.
TUESDAY APRIL 17, 1962
WHY HAS GROMYKO GONE TO VISIT TITO?
Yesterday Andrey Gromyko arrived in Belgrade on an official visit. He will stay there a week. Gromyko is an individual without any personality. This top Soviet functionary and obedient servant of Khrushchev has no backbone and his pants are threadbare at the knees. Gromyko has gone to Belgrade not to hold normal inter-state talks, but to approve Tito's line, to offer him new concessions on a tray, to beg Tito, on Khrushchev's behalf, to become an intermediary with the Americans, to confirm to Tito the split in the socialist camp and to assure him that they will continue to oppose China and Albania. Gromyko has gone to Belgrade to plot with Tito against Albania, according to Khrushchev's directives and in complete conformity with the desires, aims and methods of the Titoite group. The following matters must be the secret aims of his visit to Belgrade. The rest is just a smokescreen.
1) Khrushchev is in complete agreement with Tito's line. They both have the one line. Khrushchev is pursuing the recognized line of Tito in every field, both at home and abroad. Tito succeeded in having his line against Stalin, against Albania, for splitting the socialist camp, for splitting the communist and worker's parties of the world, for toning down the struggle against imperialism and for the development of revisionism, adopted and applied to the letter by the group of Khrushchev and his followers. They are operating "in unity" on all questions. For them the struggle against Titoism is "ancient history". Smoke! When Khrushchev says that he agrees with Tito only on certain questions of foreign policy, that is just demagogy, because, in fact, the whole Khrushchevite policy conforms with that of Tito. When Khrushchev claims that he is trying to stop Yugoslavia from going over to the imperialist camp, that is just demagogy, because Yugoslavia went over to that camp long ago. On the contrary, now Tito is working to get Khrushchev arid his gang deeper into his mire in the service of imperialism. Tito's allegedly neutral course has been fully approved by Khrushchev who finds it correct. This course is necessary and essential for Khrushchev, just as it is for the American imperialists. because it is a catalyst of their lilies, the most fruitful variant of American imperialism, the ideological variant of the imperialist "comrade" to hinder the development and upsurge of communism in the countries not yet liberated, and the destroyer of the communist movement and the socialist camp.
To defend this line and the promoters of this line means to serve imperialism consciously. Hence, Gromyko has gone to Belgrade to strengthen Tito's belief in this line on behalf of Khrushchev. and Tito in turn, is to assure Kennedy. Nehru, and others that the Soviet revisionist group wants peace at any price, that it has completely given up support for the peoples' national liberation struggle (Algeria, Congo, South Vietnam, etc.), because it never has supported and never will support this struggle (the talk about support is just propaganda).
Tito understands these things very well, therefore, they are begging him to talk to and convince the Americans and the "non-aligned", his partners and Khrushchey's friends, about this. Tito's role as a "neutral", is acceptable and necessary to the "neutral" capitalist bourgeoisie, too, because it has Tito as the Trojan horse to split the communist and workers' parties in the capitalist countries. Tito serves, to some extent, as a kind of disguise to hide from the peoples the true savage features of the bourgeoisie as capitalist exploiters and oppressors and their dependence on American imperialism. Thus, Tito is a bridge for all of them. He plays in all the scenes.
Both the American imperialists and the "non-aligned", have him on their side, both ideologically and materially. They have him as an informer, as a buffer to moderate and restrain Khrushchev, and, knowing Khrushchev inside out, they know every plan and secret of his and impose their plans on him. Both sides are interested in the "non-aligned" and try to enhance their value, to make them a third force, to fight jointly with them against communism and the peoples' freedom.
2) Khrushchev's pacifist foreign policy is suffering defeat. The American imperialists are making him no concessions anywhere, but, on the contrary, are demanding more and more from him. The Americans are gaining time and stepping up their military preparations, while this Tartarin is just talking, proposing toasts and constructing Quixotic plans. However there is a limit to words and the Tartarin is getting nowhere, the Americans have the initiative. Khrushchev has to find a way out, therefore Gromyko goes to Tito to talk with him about arranging the compromises which Khrushchev has to make with the American imperialists. Tito, who knows the desires and aims of the Americans and of Khrushchev, will play the role of arbiter, with one hand reaching out for the dollar and the other for the ruble The Americans and the "non-aligned" will soon be informed confidentially about the new concessions which Khrushchev will make to them. As can be seen, the policy of backroom deals dominates everything. Long Eve Geneva and UNO!
The peace conferences are of no value, they are just playing to the gallery. The struggle against genuine socialism will be the most welcome gift which the Khrushchev group will make to the American imperialists, Tito and his "neutral" friends. On Albania, Khrushchev will be in full agreement with Tito that he should liquidate us and establish their joint agents in Albania. Of course, they will reach agreement on the methods, ways and time to act and avoid compromising themselves in the eyes of world opinion. But mark my words ...! The Party and the people are vigilant and we will smash the head of anyone who dares to touch us! Their plots will fail.
The revisionists failed in their plan to "strangle" Albania. They were unable to drag on to their counterrevolutionary road a number of communist and workers' parties which have seen the correctness and strength of our Marxist-Leninist line and the decay of the revisionists. The revisionists are meeting resistance even in their own parties and are struggling with difficulties. Now they are trying a new tactic, that of "softening", of "unity". We must be vigilant! We must uncover their objectives! We must stand firm as always!
WEDNESDAY APRIL 25, 1962
KHRUSHCHEV'S ACROBATIC TRICKS
As is his custom, Nikita Khrushchev, the fair-ground acrobat, gave a lengthy interview to the manager of the American magazine Look. who declared that he was very satisfied with his friend Khrushchev. The great concern of this clown about the situations which he himself has created and the defeats which he is suffering emerges clearly from the interview. As on every other occasion, when he sees things going badly Nikita does a recapitulation on some matters of principle. precisely on those on which his line is suffering defeat, and declares demagogically that he is in favour of "just wars", that "these wars will occur" that he "will support them", etc.. etc., idle words which he himself does not believe, but which he is obliged to say.
All the blame for his own failures in agriculture he lays on Stalin, whom he describes as completely ignorant about the problems of agriculture, he also blames the backwardness of the peasantry and the cadres, and ends up with himself as the "saviour of the situations", and shouts that soon "everything will change in the Soviet Union". Khrushchev shamelessly boosts American agriculture and technique and expresses great eagerness to go amongst the farmers of the United States of America to see and learn from them, etc. He tones down his deafening propaganda about intensive agriculture, takes a course to excuse himself tomorrow for the failure of his agricultural policy by saying that, "Later, although we cannot set the date, we shall reduce the area sown when we raise yields". Goodbye to the "new lands"! On the one hand, he abuses Stalin, on the other hand, he boosts him, on the one hand he abuses Molotov, Kaganovich, Voroshilov and others, on the other hand he boosts them. With these issues which are boiling up, his well-known acrobatic tricks are not going down with public opinion inside and outside the Soviet Union in the way he would like.
The acrobat Khrushchev did not fail to attack us before the American who was pleased with this. He said that there are people who know theory, but who apply it wrongly in practice. He said that there are disagreements with us. that we are quarrelling. but he "has never interfered in the internal affairs of Albania". What a disgraceful lie! But he is a man with no shame. The fact is that he is in great difficulties in regard to us, because even his friends cannot accept his actions against us. Now the Khrushchevites want to continue the struggle against us with new methods, with new tactics, but our firm stand is blocking the way, therefore they are thrashing around to find a way to overcome it. It is difficult for them and will remain difficult!
FRIDAY APRIL 27, 1962
THE KHRUSHCHEVITES CONTINUE TO BEG FOR DISARMAMENT WHILE THE AMERICAN IMPERIALISTS CONTINUE TO ARM THEMSELVES
The session of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, which was opened at the beginning of the week with Gromyko's speech, further hushed up the struggle against American imperialism for the reason that they are allegedly negotiating with it. And what compromises they are negotiating?! However, the Americans make no concessions. Yesterday they began their tests of nuclear weapons. Their great demagogy about the prohibition of testing nuclear weapons was drowned out by the roar of American atomic explosions on Christmas Islands. The Americans continue to arm themselves, but the Khrushchevites continue to beg for disarmament. In Europe, in secrecy, trampling on the Warsaw Treaty and the joint talks on Germany and Berlin, the Khrushchevite clique has given way to the imperialists over Berlin, has accepted the internationalization of the control of entry into West Berlin, while the Americans, British and French refuse to remove their troops from there. Words, always words. The settlement of the German question. of Berlin. and the Peace Treaty has been put off indefinitely.
FRIDAY MAY 25, 1962
A NEW AGREEMENT WHICH WILL SERVE THE ARMING AND THE WAR-MONGERING PLOTS OF THE USA AND THE USSR
According to radio reports, an agreement has been reached in Geneva between the Soviets and the Americans on "stopping the cold war and war-mongering propaganda". The American imperialists are making much ado about this. advertising it as an important achievement, although everyone knows that not only will they not cease such activity. but they will find a thousand and one ways to continue it. By publicizing the Geneva agreement they want to avoid exposure and to operate more freely in arming themselves and implementing their plans and plots. For their part, the Khrushchevites have long been applying this line and no longer expose imperialism. However the genuine Marxist-Leninists do not accept this demagogical line of the two superpowers and they will tear the mask from the American imperialists and the Khrushchevite revisionists.
THURSDAY MAY 31, 1962
COMECON FACING GREAT DIFFERENCES
The Council of Mutual Economic Aid will meet on June 6. Up till now we have not been invited and, certainly, they are not going to invite us. Nevertheless we can guess that the meeting will deal mostly with the differences between the revisionists themselves. Nikita Khrushchev has his objectives, but the others have theirs, too. Nikita wants to keep his friends bound to his chariot, to have the fewest possible economic obligations to them, while advancing them credits in order to keep them engaged, and, in those directions that are beneficial to him, to supply them with raw materials and to increase the dependence of their economies. Naturally the Poles, the Czechs, and the Germans want to get the maximum amounts of raw materials and, especially, food stuffs, with which the Soviet Union is reluctant to supply them because it has not enough for itself. These states are making many efforts to retain and even extend their capitalist markets. Poland has received and is receiving credits from the United States of America, while East Germany engages in speculation and is always begging. Now it is begging even from Adenauer.
In these conditions, the relations between the revisionists are not heading towards harmonious co-ordination, but towards the deepening of contradictions. In fact Gomulka has expressed his discontent in regard to the Council of Mutual Economic Aid to Khrushchev himself. Gomulka would like to liquidate this organ completely so as to have his hands free to act like Tito and make open approaches to the American imperialists.
The situation of international markets is becoming more and more difficult. The European Common Market prepares the terrain behind the lines for NATO, i.e., it prepares the Western states for hot war and, at the same time, for economic struggle against our camp. Thus the European Common Market will impose serious restrictions and the "socialist countries" will wage a disorganized struggle in the field of trade, because Nikita Khrushchev and his partners are wrecking their unity and common actions. Many countries of "people's democracy which live by trading with the West, like Czechoslovakia, and which are led by revisionists, will move to make underhand deals over principles. The Poles have already set out on this course and now Ulbricht is preparing to do the same thing.
It was Khrushchev himself who encouraged the seeking of credits from the Americans and that is why he had not said one word against the European Common Market until recently. Now he has spoken and proposed a discussion at UNO on the establishment of a joint international trade organization. This is just idle talk. Khrushchev might even propose that Comecon and the European Common Market be disbanded and other tales of this kind, but even if he does disband or weaken Comecon its members would still depend on one another for a number of things and would not have complete autonomy, while their co-ordination would remain on Paper. This means disintegration, capitulation. This is the course that these betrayers of Marxism-Leninism are deliberately following.
How matters are going to develop, we shall see more clearly later.
MONDAY OCTOBER 22, 1962
KENNEDY'S WAR-MONGERING SPEECH
Addressing the Soviet Union, and concretely on the question of Cuba, Kennedy delivered another very threatening, war-mongering speech, a Hitlerite speech. The essence of it was his threat to launch a new world war. Cuba is the pretext, just as Danzig was for Hitler. In the speech Kennedy proclaimed a naval blockade on Cuba, because offensive weapons threatening the American continent have been deployed there by the Soviets. Kennedy declared that any ship sailing to Cuba would be stopped and searched and those that would resist would be sunk. He declared, also, that if rockets were launched against the USA from Cuba, then the Americans would launch their atomic bombs and missiles against the Soviet Union, etc. In a word. the USA is preparing to attack Cuba, is establishing a blockade to stop aid reaching it, and is threatening Khrushchev. Kennedy. the friend of Khrushchev and the revisionists, is playing hell with them.
TUESDAY OCTOBER 23, 1962
THE KHRUSHCHEVITES ARE COWARDS, COMPROMISERS AND TRAITORS
In connection with Kennedy's war-mongering speech on the question of Cuba, the Soviet government, wanting to appear unalarmed before world opinion, made a wishy-washy, non-committal pacifist statement after some delay. The statement does not say that the Soviet Union will defend Cuba, nor does it reply to the direct attacks and threats which Kennedy made. The Khrushchevites are showing themselves to be what they are, cowards, compromisers and traitors who leave their friends in the lurch, individuals devoid of principles and morals, therefore, they are unmasking themselves in the eyes of world opinion. They will come to terms with Kennedy, will make concessions to him, but if they leave heroic Cuba in the lurch. this will be a great crime and mean total exposure for them.
Cuba decreed general mobilization under the slogan "the Homeland or deaths". It demanded a meeting of the Security Council of the UNO. The United States of America and the Soviet Union also demanded this and it will meet today.
SATURDAY OCTOBER 27, 1962
KHRUSHCHEV CAPITULATED AND LEFT CUBA IN THE LURCH
It turned out as we thought. Khrushchev capitulated to Kennedy and left Cuba in the lurch, Messages were exchanged. Kennedy issued an ultimatum to Khrushchev that he must stop the construction of missile launching pads, dismantle those he has established and remove the missiles from Cuba. The traitor Khrushchev accepted Kennedy's conditions in a servile tone and with fear in his belly. The terrible thing is that with his stand the traitor has utterly discredited the Soviet Union. This is a new great betrayal which has been committed against the Soviet Union, Marxism-Leninism, socialism, mankind and peace. This stand whets the imperialists' appetite.
THURSDAY NOVEMBER 8, 1962
SHAME ON KHRUSHCHEV
The news agencies report that the Soviet missiles are being shipped away from Cuba, and that American warships are going to verify their removal on the high seas. Shame on Khrushchev and his henchmen who have stooped so low as to umiliate the Soviet Union such a degree! Bat the day will come when they get their just desert.
THURSDAY DECEMBER 13, 1962
KHRUSHCHEV TRIES TO EXPLAIN HIS BETRAYAL
Yesterday Khrushchev delivered a speech on the international situation and Soviet foreign policy at the session of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. Beside him in the presidium of the meeting he had his brother and close comrade, the traitor Tito. The main purpose of his long speech was to make a long-winded explanation of his betrayal (in fact, to avoid explaining it), of his retreat before the strength of American imperialism. His whole problem was to try to clear himself, to wipe out the bad impression created and the great disgrace which he brought upon the Soviet Union. But he could not and never will be able to do this. Now the whole revisionist chorus has adopted this theme and aim. Nikita Khrushchev presented the removal of missiles from Cuba as a victory, as a road open (through a catastrophe) to new victories (new scandalous compromises and concessions). The second aim of the speech was the complete, official, public rehabilitation of the Titoite renegades, both from the state stand-point and, especially, from the ideological stand-point. On this issue he threw off all disguise. The predictions of the Party of Labour of Albania have been confirmed.
As usual, Khrushchev attacked the Party of Labour of Albania and its leadership without any argument. In this way he pleased Tito greatly. Likewise, he attacked the Communist Party of China. The treacherous aims of the Khrushchevite revisionist group, the splitting of the camp, the formation of the international revisionist bloc, the feverish open approaches to American imperialism, the efforts on Khrushchev's part to provide Kennedy with more and more proofs of his goodwill so that the agreements they will reach with his agent Tito will be welcomed by Kennedy, are becoming clearer every day. The future will make clear all their intrigues and capitulationist plans.
MONDAY JANUARY 21, 1963
A SHAMEFUL RETREAT
Today the traitor Nikita Khrushchev accepted the international control of nuclear tests on the territory of the Soviet Union. This is another shameful concession, another retreat before Kennedy and American imperialism. After this the Americans will certainly demand other concessions and Khrushchev will make them. In fact, Kennedy declared that, on the whole, he was pleased by this concession of Khrushchev, but he let it be understood that other demands will follow. We have no doubts about this.
WEDNESDAY JANUARY 30, 1963
THE SPLIT IN BRUSSELS (On January 29, 1963, the Executive Committee of the European Common Market convened in Brussels decided to suspend the talks with Britain about its application for membership)
France has risen against the United States of America and Britain. The latter was not admitted to the European Common Market because of the opposition of De Gaulle, who wants to see that country prostrate itself to him and Adenauer. At the same time, this is the second blow France has struck the United States of America (the first was De Gaulle's opposition to the deployment of the American "Polaris" missiles on French territory and his creation of the independent French nuclear striking force).
This is not a bad situation for us. The quarrels are getting worse in the imperialist camp, the leader of which is encountering and will encounter obstacles. Our policy must be to take advantage of the inter-imperialist contradictions in order to deepen them. Who is there to do this? Khrushchev is on the course of betrayal. He is committed to the Americans and will undoubtedly take their side, because he considers them less dangerous than De Gaulle and Adenauer. Khrushchev dreams that he will succeed in getting the United States of America lined up with him against Adenauer and De Gaulle. However, the Americans. who have imperialist ambitions, will not readily relinquish Adenauer.
SUNDAY FEBRUARY 3, 1963
KENNEDY HAS RECOMMENCED UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR TESTS
Another defeat for Khrushchev and another proof of the correctness of our line. Khrushchev's "good man" Kennedy, is continuing the armaments race and the nuclear blackmail, as he was bound to do. He has announced the recommencement of underground nuclear tests. After this Kennedy will demand further concessions from Khrushchev and he will certainly make them, because his course has been set. He is already in Kennedy's clutches. Along with the announcement about the recommencement of nuclear tests, the American imperialists have raised the question of the presence of 17.000 Soviet soldiers in Cuba and are sure to launch a campaign for their withdrawal. The Americans will get what they want easily, because he is a coward. On the other hand, by withdrawing the missiles he as in Cuba, Khrushchev ensures that the Cubans never get possession of them.
MONDAY MARCH 18, 1963
PROPAGANDIST OF THE AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE
The traitor Khrushchev has turned into a simple propagandist of the American way of life. While claiming that he has entered into competition with the United States of America, in reality, for a long time he has been advertising the economic progress of that country in industry, agriculture, construction and elsewhere. Apart from the propaganda in favour of the United States of America by means of the film which was made on the occasion of Khrushchev's visit there, Kozlov, Polyansky and other Soviet revisionist chiefs, in their own ways, have become apologists for that great capitalist country. Now that Khrushchev is in great difficulties, because of the failure of his destructive line in agriculture, and has engaged in a series of disgraceful somersaults, such as the continual dismissals of a whole series of secretaries, the frequent changes in the Ministry of Agriculture, the recent letter which he sent the Presidium allegedly about the creation of vegetable farms around the cities (they have existed for a long time), or about a new regionalization of agriculture (he does this every year), still he does not fail to spread propaganda in favour of the United States of America by speaking about the use of maize there, etc., etc. Even Tito has not fallen so disgracefully low. He acts but does not advertise the fact.
SATURDAY APRIL 6, 1963
A DIRECT TELEPHONE LINK BETWEEN KHRUSHCHEV AND KENNEDY
It was made public today that a direct telephone link between Khrushchev and Kennedy has been established. The Americans called it the "line of hope". In fact it is a victory for the American imperialists, because from now on the two international gangsters can converse in secret and hatch up plots against communism and the freedom-loving peoples.
WEDNESDAY JUNE 12, 1963
KENNEDY REVEALS KHRUSHCHEV'S COURSE OF BETRAYAL
The day before yesterday, Kennedy delivered an allegedly pacifist, demagogic speech. He meets the revisionist and traitor Nikita Khrushchev half-way, and using almost the same terms as the latter, takes him by the hand to set him properly on the course of betrayal. In fact, in this speech Kennedy reveals Khrushchev's course of betrayal so as to drag him along like Tito and to crucify him like Christ. He lauds Khrushchev, telling him that they both have the same policy, the same aim, so they should come to agreement. Therefore, Kennedy calls on Khrushchev to maintain the monopoly of atomic weapons, advises him to destroy the socialist camp and trusts him to do so, because Khrushchev, in agreement with Kennedy and Tito, has long been engaged in this task. The betrayal could not be more open!
Everything is clear to all; everything and every day confirms the foresight of the Party of Labour of Albania and the correctness of its actions. There is no time to lose, the traitor gang of Nikitich (An ironical distortion of the name Nikita) must be attacker openly, without any hesitation, because it is doing colossal damage to communism and humanity. Nikita is heading with giant strides towards integration into capitalism. It is a1 mistake for the Chinese comrades to proceed with such "prudence" and procrastination against these international bandits. The United States of America, Britain and the Soviet Union have decided to hold a meeting in Moscow to talk about a moratorium on nuclear tests, to draft a treaty on banning these tests, which means confirmation on their part of the safeguarding of their nuclear monopoly in order to suppress communism and the revolution throughout the world. We will do our duty to the end to expose these plans, even if we stand alone. But we will not be alone!
FRIDAY JUNE 14, 1963
MODERN REVISIONISM IN THE SERVICE OF AMERICAN IMPERIALISM
Notes (These notes were used by the author in the article "Kennedy's new demagogy and the old plan", published in the newspaper Zeri i popullit, June 23, 1963)
Modern revisionism, headed by the renegades from Marxism-Leninism, Khrushchev and Tito, has placed itself in the service of the general strategy of American imperialism.
Nothing has changed in the general strategy of imperialism, with American imperialism at the head.
Its main aims:
- to insist on preparations for war in order to establish the hegemony of capial in the world, to destroy the camp of socialism. to enslave the peoples by crushing the proletarian and national revolutions.
Decisions by both sides:
- to continue arming themselves and to continue the imperialist-revisionist ideological diversion,
- the arming of the capitalists,
- the arming of the revisionists,
- the arming of the "neutrals" (the "non-aligned").
The aim of the Americans:
- to retain and increase their armaments, to retain their monopoly of atomic weapons, to keep their allies under control:
- to compel the revisionist Khrushchev to stop any further arming of the Soviet Union and its allies, to place them under American control or to neutralize them, or the. two of them together to have the atomic monopoly in the end;
- to vie with Khrushchev in the supply of arms to the so-called neutral countries and tie them to their chariot so as to have them always subordinated, to crush the revolution in these countries, to have them as allies in local wars, to have them as allies in the struggle against socialism, to have them under their own leadership in a war for the redivision of the world.
- To all of them the main enemies are Marxism-Leninism, socialism, the dictatorship of the proletariat. Therefore, everything is organized and directed against these enemies.
- Atomic blackmail and the psychosis of terror are made universal by the imperialists and the revisionists. The blackmail and threats of the imperialist and revisionist blusterers are intended to intimidate the weak and make them surrender to them, to intimidate and discourage the revolutionaries. Therefore, the "complete and general disarmament" trumpeted by both sides is a bluff, which is part of the efforts to let the dupes, whom they have terrified, to continue hoping.
- The atomic moratorium in connection with the prohibition of tests and the signing of an agreement on this issue between the Soviet Union, the United States of America and Britain has no connection with general disarmament, but is connected with the strengthening of the monopoly of atomic weapons and with "outlawing" those who dare to conduct tests and produce atomic weapons.
- This bluff must be exposed.
- The imperialist bloc and its enslaving world economic policy. The character of aid and credits: the strengthening of reactionary cliques, the exploitation of the countries that receive them, neo-colonialism, armed interventions in other countries to defend the interests of foreign capital and the dependent local capital, the preservation of spheres of influence or colonies. The demagogy of the "free world", the anti-communist struggle in all its savagery.
- The revisionist bloc, its enslaving economic policy. Credits with enslaving political terms attached, securing markets, spheres of influence, and military bases, the aim to suppress revolutions, to bring about the destruction and degeneration of the communist and workers' parties, to re-establish the capitalist hegemony.
- The common points and the contradictions of this strategy.
- The general political-ideological line of the modern revisionists suits imperialism and serves its main strategy.
- Anti-Leninist peaceful coexistence - conciliation with the bourgeois ideology, with imperialism, with Christianity, with religion in general. Ending the polemic and the so-called cold war, that is, the class struggle, eliminating revolutions. Conciliation and smoothing over any antagonistic contradiction through forms of peaceful agreement to the disadvantage of the revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat. Evolutionary development, the taking of power in peaceful ways, parliamentarianism, structural reforms, etc. (The statements of Khrushchev, Tito, Kennedy, Togliatti bring into the open the unity of their views on all this line).
- The question of war and peace, the question of disarmament and their bluffs in order to prepare for war against communism.
- The destruction of the socialist camp, the main aim of imperialism (according to statements by Truman, Churchill, Eisenhower, Kennedy).
- Tito's activity in words and deeds.
- Khrushchev's splitting activity in words and practical actions.
- The European Common Market, its aims and difficulties.
- The Council of Mutual Economic Aid (Comecon), the aims of Khrushchev and the revisionists, their difficulties. (These two organizations have the same aim and face the same difficulties.)
- The modem revisionists are proceeding toward the liquidation of the socialist camp, toward independent. states, as imperialism and the capitalist development want.
- The Khrushchev group is moving toward establishing the same ideological and political, economic and military relations as American imperialism has with its satellites.
- Capitalist relations of the great power.
- The obstacles for both sides: Marxism-Leninism, the revolution and the freedom-loving peoples of the world.
- The struggle against Albania.
- The struggle against China.
- The struggle against the other countries and Marxist-Leninist parties.
- The political. ideological. and economic struggle, and the preparations for general war with arms, sabotage and plots.
General preparations for this by the imperialists and the modern revisionists:
a) denigration of the Marxist-Leninist theory and its open distortion;
b) the ideological, political degeneration of the communist parties, their organizational degeneration and liquidation:
c) the degeneration of the socialist structure of the economy and its gradual transformation into a capitalist economy;
d) the degeneration of the army into an aggressive, predatory, megalomaniacal, anti-popular, anti-socialist army:
e) the strengthening of the bureaucracy, the worker aristocracy and the kulaks, the degeneration of intellectuals by all means and in all fields of life.
With his speech, Kennedy gave Khrushchev and the other traitors his complete approval and help.
The Main Issues From Kennedy's Speech. Of June 10
His main idea is demagogy about peace, "peace for all" but "Pax Americana" imposed with American weapons, and not the peace of the grave.. (Here he means that the dogmatists allegedly want this kind of peace - the Kennedy variant of the issue plus the Khrushchevite revisionist variant. A common hostile line.)
All the demagogy of this imperialist about peace is indistinguishable from Khrushchev's demagogy about peace.
The other idea which supports this demagogy about peace is the question that now their atomic weapons neutralize the opponents and ensure peace. That is, according to Kennedy and Khrushchev, who are in agreement, the United States of America and the Soviet Union must work for the "American-Soviet peace", because they have the atomic bombs and must retain their monopoly, while the others must follow and obey, and these two, that is, the USA and the USSR. should conclude a treaty on the prohibition of tests of nuclear weapons and ban tests of these weapons. (Obviously, the reference here is to China, which, according to them, must in no way be allowed to conduct tests and have such weapons, and if China dares to do this, they will condemn it, not merely as not a peace-loving state, but as a state which is endangering peace, therefore, they should liquidate it with weapons and partition it between them. On this Khrushchev and Kennedy are in agreement and have long been engaged in such a game).
Another demagogic idea which Kennedy and Khrushchev have in common is the issue that "there will be a large surplus of funds, and these we shall use for construction, for the improvement of life", etc., that is, to keep the peoples under their domination and dictate by feeding them a few crumbs, and creating the worker aristocracy and the strata of the bureaucracy. Kennedy says to Khrushchev: "You have advocated this, and I am with you, we are in agreement on our aims and means. Let us proceed hand in hand on this road."
While putting the problem of peace. on the same demagogic course as Khrushchev, Kennedy also defines the objective and subjective obstacles on both sides, which must be eliminated and how to eliminate them.
Kennedy openly implies that there are ,madmen. in the United States of America (allegedly Khrushchev is right), "but they must and will reflect, must be restrained, and we shall restrain them" (he placates the fears of Khrushchev, the modern revisionists, the dupes).
Kennedy calls on the "madmen" to revise their views about the Soviet Union. This is what is needed and it will do no harm, says Kennedy, we are making no concessions and we hope to triumph and to strangle communism. We may make some minor sacrifices. Elisabeth Flynn (At that time chairman of the National Committee of the Communist Party (revisionist) of the USA) can do us no harm, we have her in the FBI. Kennedy assures the American sceptics that the Soviet leaders will change, or are in the process of changing. They are no longer the former ones, and to please Khrushchev he says that they (the Americans) will change their attitude towards the Soviet Union.
Whether they will change, or where they ought to change, this Kennedy defines with great demagogy.
In regard to peace - this is possible now., war is not inevitable. (That is, Kennedy tells Khrushchev: "I, too, was convinced with your famous theses at the 20th Congress. What more do you and your friends, who are also my friends, need to be convinced?")
Therefore, says Kennedy, peace can be achieved through the evolution of social institutions (the changes that are being made in the Soviet Union and its satellite countries). There may be, and probably will be, differences, but we must solve them and march forward, says Kennedy (there will be ideological differences between "Marxists", say Tito and Khrushchev, but these we shall solve through talks, or by putting them aside to be solved later, now let us march forward). And Kennedy tells Khrushchev openly: "We shall help you on this course, don't be afraid. go ahead." In regard to the Soviet Union, Kennedy tells the Americans, and at the same time, Khrushchev (in order to flatter and help him, just as he has helped Kennedy by describing him as reasonable and peaceful) that there are worthy people in every regime, and these worthy people do not believe the "madmen" of the (Soviet) propaganda. Therefore, Kennedy advises Khrushchev to "restrain" his "madmen" because Kennedy has "restrained" or is going "to restrain. the diplomats, the officers of the Pentagon, and others. Hence, on this question, too, Kennedy tells Khrushchev, we are in complete agreement.
Kennedy goes even further in his use of Khrushchev's formulas: The United States of America and the Soviet Union have never made war on each other. You "unfortunate people of the Soviet Union lost 20 million dead, you fought valiantly, your country was put to the torch", etc., and today, if war were to break out (from the Chinese) we would suffer damage, therefore, says Kennedy, let us agree to proceed on the course which we two have set jointly.
Therefore, Kennedy advises Khrushchev, "We should not enter into polemics", but should take effective secret measures, should be linked directly by telephone, so the two of us can co-ordinate everything. And you, Khrushchev, leave the countries of people's democracy free, let the socialist camp break up, as we have agreed with Tito, and we should settle the German question and the problem of Berlin as I have advised, because I do not change my position.
Kennedy says openly that with these splits which exist in the camp, everything will go well, the American-Soviet peace will be secured, therefore, carry on, Khrushchev. In brief, Kennedy's speech lets the cat out of the bag, and confirms the correctness of our views about Khrushchev. The American imperialists are convinced that Khrushchev is moving closer to them, that he is deeply committed to the course of betrayal, but at the same time, to the course of exposure. Therefore, Kennedy comes to his aid, to tell him, go shead, because I am with you, I am helping you on your line which I have dictated to you. to compromise you further, so that you won't turn back because your head will roll. Therefore, Kennedy tells him, let us work together, continue to deceive the Castros, organize sabotage under your slogans, hatch up plots against every socialist country, bring your men and mine to power, establish the dictatorship of the revisionist group, etc., etc., and you have me beside you at every moment.
This, in broad outline, is the meaning of Kennedy's speech.
VLORA, FRIDAY JULY 26, 1963
INSTRUCTIONS ON TWO NOTES OF PROTEST
We must prepare two notes against the Soviet government (the Khrushchev group) and the governments of the other member countries of the Warsaw Treaty. Their content must be as follows:
1) As members of this Treaty, we must expose the enslaving economic aims which are hidden behind the façade of Comecon, the economic integration under revisionist leadership through which the Soviet Union wants to exert political-economic pressure on the former socialist countries so as to drag them towards their gradual transformation into capitalism and degeneration. We must expose the evil purpose of Khrushchev's traitor group, which is working for the degeneration of the Soviet Union by creating chaos in the economy, while extending Political, economic and ideological links with the capitalists.
2) As members of the Warsaw Treaty, we must expose the treacherous objectives which the member countries of this Treaty want to achieve through the treaty on the partial banning of tests of nuclear weapons (This treaty was signed in Moscow on July 25, 1983). The Moscow treaty is directed against the peoples of the world and wants to prevent others from having nuclear weapons, so they will be dependent on, and always under the pressure of, the double nuclear threat of the Soviets and the Americans, who want to safeguard their monopoly of nuclear weapons. With this treaty, which does not solve the problem of disarmament and, especially, that of the destruction of stocks of atomic bombs, the Khrushchev group once again betrays the cause of the peoples, the revolution and communism. This group makes proposals which are to the advantage of the Americans, who, through Kennedy's speech, said openly that this treaty does not prohibit nuclear war, does not oblige the Americans to reduce their stocks of bombs, or prevent them from producing others, from arming their allies, or from cancelling this agreement. The excuses for this can be very quickly concocted. Woe betide those who trust the capitalists!
Kennedy declared bluntly that China is a threat to mankind and quoted Khrushchev on this point.
These notes are of principled importance, reflecting the stands we must maintain towards these questions which are vital for socialism and communism.
VLORA, THURSDAY AUGUST 1, 1963
THE KHRUSHCHEVITES' BETRAYAL IS CLEAR TO ALL
The Moscow Treaty on the partial prohibition of nuclear weapons is a shameful capitulation of the Soviet government to American imperialism. Nikita Khrushchev is the Americans' man. They have him completely in their grip. Now Nikita Khrushchev will act according to the directives from Washington in everything. The disguises, methods, demagogy, which his group of traitors will employ are of no importance. The Khrushchevites will go from concession to concession, from capitulation to capitulation. Khrushchev is an ally and agent of the Americans. It is difficult to say precisely how they have managed to achieve this success, but I think that apart from Khrushchev's personal disposition Tito played a major role in getting Khrushchev, this intriguer, conspirator, careerist, boaster and whatever else you like to call him, into the shackles of a compromised agent. Tito got a tight hold on him and took him to the Americans bound hand and foot. Let us take just the question of the prohibition of nuclear weapons. It is known that Khrushchev capitulated disgracefully, recanted and violated all his previous declarations on this issue, and accepted the American draft, which constitutes the essence and the entire content of the Moscow Treaty on the partial prohibition of tests of nuclear weapons.
What does this mean? When has such a thing been seen in history? Only when there is betrayal, only when he who commits this betrayal is an agent.
As a man, as a politician, as an agent, and as a traitor, Khrushchev is another Laval. The one, Khrushchev, sold out the Soviet Union and the socialist camp and betrayed communism, the other, Laval, betrayed France. But while Laval betrayed France only, Khrushchev is a traitor of an international character, who has inflicted great damage on socialism and communism. And Khrushchev's allies in other parties are dangerous traitors, too, therefore we must fight them with all our might.
The world communist movement is going through a grave crisis, which must be overcome in a revolutionary way, and in a revolutionary way alone. Modern revisionism is rallying its forces, and in collaboration and in alliance with world imperialism is attacking us. We must reply to their attack with even sterner attacks. Irrespective that our enemies have colossal military, economic and propaganda potential, nothing frightens us, because we are on the right road, our line is correct, we are Marxists and they are traitors. The majority is with us, or will be with us, during the revolutionary struggle.
It is important that the Chinese leaders have apparently corrected their tactic in the struggle against these traitors and have begun their open, just and justified struggle (From the analyses which Comrade Enver Hoxha has made of the stand and policy of the Communist Party of China toward the Khrushchevites, it emerges that the Chinese leaders sometimes made approaches to the Soviet revisionists in order to reach a compromise with them, sometimes fell out with them, depending on their interests and the circumstances. They waged the struggle against the Khrushchevite revisionists not from principled Marxist-Leninist positions, as the Party of Labour of Albania did, but from national-chauvinist positions). I believe that now the Chinese comrades are fully understanding our correct views, which we have expressed to them many times over a period of more than a year. Perhaps their hesitation has done harm, because for a long time ours has been the only voice which exposed the traitors, who took advantage of the very formalist stand of the Chinese in order to deceive people, to establish closer links with one another and with imperialism. But better late than never. Now we must press forward to win terrain and defeat the betrayal. The struggle will be long, but the victory will be ours, the Marxist-Leninists.
VLORA, WEDNESDAY JANUARY 15, 1964
CHINA'S RECOGNITION BY FRANCE
Zhou Enlai told us (against During his visit to Albania early in January 1964) that during his visit to Africa a communiqué may be issued to announce that the French Republic has recognized the People's Republic of China. This act is a result of the talks between Edgar Faure - De Gaulle's semi-official envoy to China, and the Chinese leaders.
The establishment of diplomatic relations between China and France, with France accepting China's conditions, that is, the breaking off of diplomatic relations with Talpeh and non-recognition of the American policy of "two Chinas", will have great international importance and profound consequences in world policy. This act isolates the adventurous and predatory policy of the American imperialists and is truly a heavy blow to the American hegemonic policy.
Undoubtedly, this event will make the serious split that exists between France and the United States of America even deeper. The present circumstances are such that despite the strong, allround pressure which the American and British imperialists and, to some extent, Bonn Germany are exerting on France, the French bourgeoisie and its president have refused to submit to their dictate. France is revolting against the military line of NATO and against the economic policy of the USA, etc. Faced with such a situation, American and British imperialism, with the aid of the revisionist group of Khrushchev, are trying to isolate France, to bring it to its knees and make it an obedient state. But the French imperialist bourgeoisie is making a change in its policy towards establishing diplomatic relations with China. Of course, in these conditions France will be able to develop its trade more freely with China and many other countries of the Far East, thus, to some extent it escapes the boycott of its markets which American imperialism is gobbling up, and this is vital to it. This cannot fail to have profound political consequences within NATO, because economic pressures are among the main means of struggle between imperialists.
By recognizing the People's Republic of China, De Gaulle has shown himself to be an intelligent bourgeois. This event will certainly cause a chain reaction within NATO, in the different reciprocal links among the member countries of this organization, in their international stands towards important problems of a world character. The omnipotence of the authority of the United States of America has suffered a marked defeat. Sooner or later other states will follow France in their stand towards China. For example, one of the first will be Japan, which is striving to escape from the American yoke and has great commercial and political interests in the establishment of relations with the People's Republic of China. Likewise the American positions in UNO, in defence of the corpse Chiang Kaishek, also become difficult.
This whole situation created by the establishment of diplomatic relations between France and the PR of China puts the American world trade in difficult positions, discredits and undermines the aggressive policy of the United States in Vietnam, Korea and elsewhere, where France will strive to regain some positions, perhaps weak, but better than nothing. Seeing this situation, the British Commonwealth, too, will be in a fever against the American pressure.
The sharpening of contradictions among imperialist countries, their splitting up, the weakening and isolation of the United States of America and the triumph of socialism and the peoples who are fighting for freedom are important for us.
On the other hand, Khrushchev's "world" policy, an adventurous and completely anti-Marxist policy, is suffering a colossal defeat. His ally, the United States of America, with which he reached a treacherous compromise, is losing its chessmatch. In order to link up with and gain the trust of the Americans, the traitor Khrushchev threw off his disguise, attacked Marxism-Leninism, socialism and our country.
The traitor Khrushchev thought he had attained his goal, and that he, together with American imperialism, would rule the world. But their plans are crumbling. In these circumstances, the way things are developing, his difficulties are increasing day by day. What will the traitor do? He will go even further to his utter exposure, until he is put in his grave. Day by day the peoples and communists of the world are seeing more clearly the betrayal of Khrushchev and the modern revisionists as agents of the bourgeoisie n alliance with the world gendarme - American imperialism...
SATURDAY APRIL 25, 196
WE MUST EXPOSE THE REVISIONIST ACTIVITY IN EUROPE
Project and notes for an article
Exposure of the revisionist activity in Europe is becoming an urgent need.
- The revolutionary traditions in Europe: against monopoly capital, against imperialism, against Italo-German fascism, against opportunist traitors, social-chauvinists and other anti-Marxist currents: Trotskyites, Mensheviks, Bulcharinites, and other servants of the bourgeoisie;
a) the ideological struggle;
b) b) the political struggle;
c) c) the economic struggle;
d) d) the armed struggle
(from the time of Marx to the collapse of nazi-fascism and the strengthening of people's democracy in the European countries).
After the Second World War
The economic, political and military positions of the capitalist bourgeoisie in Europe. The alliance with the United States of America, American aid, its purposes. The aims of various plans of this imperialist bourgeoisie in Europe for the re-assertion and strengthening of the power of the monopoly capital and its political positions, its military preparations, its struggle against communism, against the communist and workers' parties, against the Soviet Union and the countries of people's democracy.
The struggle of social-democracy as a servant of imperialism.
- The positions of the revolutionary forces in Europe after the Second World War:
- the political-ideological positions;
- the militant positions;
- the positions of the workers' and communist parties in the European capitalist countries towards the revolutionary movement in these countries. The coherence of their revolutionary line, the solidarity of the revolution cemented by the revolutionary theory, Marxism-Leninism.
The force of the Soviet Union in the time of Lenin-Stalin
- the epicentre of the revolution; the country where the revolution triumphed; the Homeland of the world proletariat; the successful construction of socialism; the Marxist-Leninist ideology in action and on the correct course;
- the correct, principled foreign policy;
- the Soviet Union - a powerful help in the revolutionary struggles of the peoples;
- the other socialist countries of Europe and Asia, under the leadership of the communist and workers' parties, were created after the triumph over fascism;
- the successes of the socialist camp after the war until Stalin's death.
- After Stalin's death, revisionism began to spread all over Europe.
- World imperialism, headed by American imperialism, continues to arm itself rapidly, to consolidate its forces through financial enslavement, through military alliances, through capturing colonial markets, through predatory wars, various aggressions, through blackmail, and above all, through atomic blackmail.
The anti-communist propaganda is raised to a climax, measures of reprisal against communists and the communist and workers' parties in the capitalist countries, etc.
What it represents. The first signal of the revisionist danger. The struggle against it and its exposure. The unanimity of the communist and workers' parties in fighting it.
After Stalin's death: Khrushchevite revisionism
What it represents, its aims, the tactics it employed to seize power in the Soviet Union and hatch up revisionist plots in the communist and workers' parties in Europe.
The alliance of the Khrushchevite revisionists with the United States of America and their public exposure by us, the Marxist-Leninist
- Capitulation on all political-military problems;
- demands, aid in credits and experience from the United States of America;
- the organization of the struggle against Marxism-Leninism on a world scale in alliance with world capitalism and social-democracy;
- their aims: seizure of power by the modern revisionists; the degeneration of Marxism-Leninism and Marxist-Leninist parties; the degeneration of socialism to bourgeois state power (moral-political degeneration, degeneration of agriculture, industry, degeneration of the state and economic apparatuses, etc.); the Khrushchev group's subjugation of the former countries of people's democracy in Europe in all directions: political, economic, military (Comecon, the Warsaw Treaty).
The imperialist-revisionist world plan.
- The domination of the world by American imperialism, with the Soviet Union playing first fiddle (gradually transformed by the Khrushchev group into a bourgeois-capitalist state of a special type);
- cold and hot war against communism, against the construction of socialism, against the peoples' freedom, against revolutionary, national liberation struggles. Two main weapons, on the one hand, demagogy and lies, and on the other, the atom bomb;
- these two weapons are in the hands of the Americans and Khrushchevites;
- the other weapon, the economic strength of these two partners, a means for the enslavement of peoples, the rehabilitation and the prolongation of the existence of capitalism, the degeneration of individuals.
- Wherever the links of the capitalist chain are weakest, there hot wars are being and will be waged Asia, Africa, Latin America;
- together with the Americans, Khrushchev is working in Asia and Africa against communism, hatching up plots against the peoples, contributing through UNO (Congo) to putting down the revolution, providing credits for the strengthening of reactionary cliques, etc. Khrushchev cannot poke his nose into Latin America, the USA Keeps him out. For the time being it thinks that it is able to quell the revolution and the national liberation struggle in every country in this continent. The special task of modern revisionism is to spread all over Europe.
- To snuff out any attempt at revolution in Europe, to cause the degeneration of Marxism-Leninism into revisionism, of the communist and workers' parties of Europe into bourgeois, social-democratic parties, of the socialist countries into bourgeois-revisionist capitalist countries, and turn Europe into a reliable platform from which reaction can attack socialism and communism everywhere in the world.
- Hence, world capitalism and its lackeys are striving to divert Europe from revolution before they prepare a nuclear war, hence, to establish the dictatorship of the capital everywhere in Europe.
- This plan is being carried out also by the Khrushchevite revisionists, together with their followers, who employ demagogy by saying:
Genuine Marxism, according to Lenin and Marx, is flourishing only in Europe, and the centre, the guiding light, is the Khrushchev group.
According to the revisionists, everywhere else, Marxism-Leninism has degenerated, has fallen into dogmatism, bourgeois nationalism, neo-Trotskyism, etc..
Therefore, according to them, the Khrushchevite enlightenment has to be taken everywhere.
The revisionists say that Europe is and will remain the cradle and bed of "pure Marxism".
The great, urgent sacred duty of all communists of Europe and the world is: to rise and fight heroically against this gross betrayal...
SATURDAY OCTOBER 17, 1964
THE FALL OF THE TRAITOR NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV
Yesterdays (On October 16, 1964, Nikita Khrushchev was expelled from the Presidium of the CC of the CPSU and was dismissed from the functions he held as first secretary of the CC and chairman of the Council of Minister of the USSR) was truly a day for great rejoicing for all the Marxist-Leninists of the world and, especially, for the Party of Labour of Albania and the Albanian people. Our heroic party has a legitimate right to rejoice and to feel satisfaction, because it has fought heroically, with great Marxist-Leninist maturity against modern revisionism, in general, and against Khrushchevism and Titoism, in particular. The Khrushchevites were the first to open fire on the Party of Labour of Albania. This fire became general, from all the modern revisionists, assumed a breadth and depth never seen before and was transformed into a furious ideological, political. economic, diplomatic and military crusade against the Party of Labour of Albania, the Albanian people and the People's Republic of Albania. Our Party replied to the fire which they opened, stood up to this fire with mature Marxist-Leninist courage and, not only was not brought to its knees, but fought proudly in the forefront and became an example and a banner. With this it won the trust, admiration. respect and support of all the Marxist-Leninist parties which took a correct stand, and of all the Marxist-Leninists and the revolutionaries in the world. Our heroic, unflinching, just struggle continued for years on end and every year was filled with victories for our Party. These victories are like shining medals which decorate its valiant chest and their lustre will never be dulled. Step by step we mercilessly pursued, unmsaked and fought modern revisionism, the traitor group of Khrushchev, the traitor group of Tito and all the other revisionist groupings. We contributed powerfully to the unmasking of then all-round betrayal.
We had unshakeable confidence that the traitor would be defeated (On April 7, 1964, in a talk with a delegation of the Trade Unions of the DR of Vietnam which find come for a visit to Albania. Comrade Enver Hoxha, among other things, said: "The fact is that today the revisionists are going downhill. Khrushchev is being exposed more and more each day. The situation is extremely difficult for him because the Marxist-Leninist parties now have lined up and are linked together as solidly as reinforced concrete, while the facade of the Khrushchevites is unstable, swaying whichever way the wind blows: their stun is leafing and the rats are beginning to leave it: they have Malta fever." (Enver Hoxha, Works. vol. 26. Alb. ed., "8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana 1978, p. 230.)), and there is nothing surprising about the manner in which he was eliminated, but the sudden dismissal of this traitor from his leading posts, and especially by his own associates, came as a surprise to us. This is a palace putsch. Just as Khrushchev organized his putsch when he eliminated Molotov, Kaganovich and Malenkov just as he tried and executed Beria, just as he eliminated Zhukov, his own associates eliminated Khrushchev himself ("Khrushchev seized power through a putsch, and Brezhnev toppled him from the throne with a putsch","Brezhnev and company got rid of Khrushchev to protect the revisionist policy and ideology from the discredit and exposure resulting from his crazy behaviour and actions and embarrassing buffoonery. He did not in any way reject Khrushchevism, the reports and decisions of the 20th and 22nd Congresses in which Khrushchevism is embodied. Brezhnev showed himself to be so ungrateful to Khrushchev, whom he had previously lauded so high, that he could not even find a hole in the wall of the Kremlin to put his ashes when he died! Meanwhile. neither the Soviet peoples, nor world opinion have ever been informed of the real reasons for the overthrow of Khrushchev. Even to this day, the 'main reason' given in the revisionist official documents is 'his advanced age and deteriorating state of health'!!" (Enver Hoxha, With Stalin (Memoirs), Third English edition, "8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana 1984, p. 35)) Judging from the first information, apparently the putsch was organized in a conspiratorial way and the traitor and his closest henchmen knew nothing about it, or were placed in a situation where they had no time either to warn him or to take measures. In time the facts will make everything clear to us.
We are obliged to think that the Soviet revisionists came to the conclusion that they could go no further with Nikita Khrushchev as their leader. The Soviet revisionist group thought that the rush to disaster under the rash leadership of the traitor Khrushchev had to be brought to a halt, and in order to do this at least Nikita Khrushchev had to be eliminated and the blame for the crimes and sins loaded onto him, and in fact he deserved to be blamed for them, but he is not the only one - his associates who brought him down are equally to blame. It is logical that 'heir betrayal, which began with their 20th and 22nd Congress (although even earlier, before these congresses, immediately after the death of Stalin, the modern revisionists worked out their betrayal, reached agreement with one another, organized plans and intrigues and prepared the terrain inside and outside the Soviet Union), led them on a terrible course, to colossal losses of the internal and international prestige of the Soviet Union as a great power, to the weakening of its military-economic potential, and to the loss of the authority of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the international communist movement. They had not foreseen and reckoned on such catastrophe. They thought that their betrayal would bring them gains, but, as is logical, it brought them all-round defeats. They did not score the slightest success in any direction, but on the contrary, suffered terrible defeats, which they strove to the end to cover up with loud-mouthed demagogy, to present as victories, but in vain. Neither their demagogy nor their lies did them any good. The cup was full.
Peace in the world, which their revisionist line advocated, was not achieved. but on the contrary, was further compromised and endangered.
The Soviet revisionists and the American imperialists strove, the former with their political and ideological disarmament, and the latter with fire and steel, to quell the revolutions and the national liberation wars, but instead of being quelled they increased.
Disarmament about which there was so much boastful propaganda has not been achieved, on the contrary, each year the arms race is increasing and becoming more threatening, and while the Americans are increasing their armaments and exerting atomic blackmail, the Khrushchevites are disarming their friends, that is, the satellite countries. With this policy they are contributing powerfully to the arming of world reaction against socialism and the peoples' revolution.
The partial prohibition of nuclear tests, on which the Moscow Treaty was signed, was a fraud, a betrayal which did not yield the slightest result, because the Americans had no further need for tests in the atmosphere and the treaty did not prevent them from conducting underground tests, increasing their stocks of nuclear weapons and supplying these to their allies. Hence, in fact, the Soviet revisionists betrayed the cause of socialism, peace and mankind, because the Moscow Treaty did not put the slightest restraint on American imperialism in its preparations for a nuclear war. On the contrary, Khrushchev prettified these feverish preparations, whitewashed the United States of America, made it its friend and ally and now, as a friend and ally of the Soviet Union, it is continuing on its own course without any political, ideological, or propaganda worry. On the other hand, the Soviet revisionists, the Americans and those who signed the Moscow Treaty were able to rise in a joint anti-Chinese chorus when China carried out its first test of an atomic bomb.
The question of the treaty with Germany and the Berlin problem is a great and shameful defeat. On this question it is possible that Khrushchev's betrayal has gone even further with Washington and Bonn. Time will certainly confirm this.
Instead of being eliminated, the contradictions among the revisionists were increased and exacerbated (the Rumanians, Italians, etc.). A basket of crabs.
Our struggle and that of all the Marxist-Leninists in the world against the modern revisionists, and especially against the Khrushchevites, was not quelled but, on the contrary, grew stronger and was waged with great success. It exposed their betrayal step by step, strengthened the revolutionary struggle of communists throughout the world, inspired and assisted the creation of new Marxist-Leninist parties and groups, deepened the crisis in the ranks of modern revisionism, exposed the falsity of Khrushchevite "unity" and the "cessation of polemics" to the point that the Khrushchevite revisionist group decided to hold the factional meeting to expel us from the communist movement. This was the ultimate catastrophe for them.
On the internal plane, the Soviet revisionists and their counterparts in the former people's democracies of Europe have suffered and are suffering great defeats in every field. They have great problems, are encountering countless, insurmountable difficulties.
All these defeats and other acts of betrayal about which we still do not know, but which we presume because they are the logical consequence of their betrayal, forced the Soviet revisionists to remove the arch-traitor from their midst.
Having removed Khrushchev, they declared that they would resolutely pursue the line laid down by the 20th and 22nd Congresses, that is, the Khrushchevite line. Time and their actions will make clear to us what is hidden under this formula, but we must have no illusions about the individuals who are left. They are revisionists of the worst kind who cannot return to the right road; they are genuinely for the line of the 20th and 22nd Congresses but with some modifications, which they will certainly try to formulate or to apply in order to improve the grave situation which they themselves created. They will try to do something to deceive the Marxist-Leninists, to throw dust in their eyes, and will try to build some sort of new tactic towards us, towards their revisionist friends. towards the imperialists and the world bourgeoisie. Otherwise, it would be meaningless for them to remove Khrushchev and raise new difficulties for themselves, both in the Soviet Union and in the international arena, because the removal of Khrushchev was a major defeat for the modern revisionists and, especially, for the Soviet revisionists, an act which immensely discredited and weakened them. Therefore, even without having any other facts in hand, one can guess that the Soviet revisionists were driven to carry out this "operations" not because they liked it, but because they had no alternative. The issue of Khrushchev's "old age" and "cult of the individual" are piffle. The failure, of their line and Khrushchev's other actions of even greater treachery, which we do not know about, and which the Soviet revisionists have concealed, allegedly on account of the supreme interests of the Soviet Union, are weighty facts.
We are obliged to think that the army must have played a role in carrying out the Kremlin putsch, because, the senior officers must have been upset in their views about the "defence" of the Soviet Union and the struggle for its interests. Khrushchev had his trusted men among the top officers, hence, logic tells us that they must have been confronted with such compromising documents that they were obliged to refrain from putting up the slightest show of resistance. This must have had an effect within the hierarchy of the party and the state, too. Hence, any resistance in this direction, especially at the first moments, was eliminated. Next, it was important for the new Soviet leadership that the Soviet communists and the Soviet people should not be alarmed, should be deceived and consider these things normal, carried out on the party road, on account of "old age", "the cult of the individual", "cronyism", and other piffle. Hence, their first concern was to give the party and the people the impression that "the line is in order, correct", that "it is successful", and especially to prevent the people and the communists from learning about the new betrayals which were being prepared by Khrushchev. This is the meaning and the purpose of the first dry, false communiqués, articles and speeches of the Soviet leadership after the fall of Khrushchev. Instead of deceiving anyone, they have further exposed the revisionists as incurable anti-Marxists, incorrigible cowardly putschists who are terrified of the people, of the opinion of the communist and the imperialist world, because they are criminals, just as guilty as Khrushchev. They are afraid to answer for this; therefore, they will put nothing in order, but will fail in everything they do.
What do the Soviet leaders want and what initial steps can they take?
They want to be left in peace and, first of all, want the polemic to stop, want us to cease the polemic because it has crushed, exposed and ruined them. They will come out "pleading", that Khrushchev, who exacerbated matters, has been removed, therefore "we can reach agreement", "should strengthen our unity", "unity above all", "the struggle against imperialism", "we must eliminate the differences", etc., etc., in brief all the old arsenal of Khrushchevite demagogy but without Khrushchev.
According to them, Khrushchev is the culprit both for us and for them. For us the polemic must not cease but, on the contrary, must be strengthened, enriched, we must take advantage from the victory to go on to new victories, to the total and final defeat of modern revisionism and the betrayal, and the creation of genuine Marxist-Leninist unity in the international communist movement, by definitively throwing all revisionists, under whatever disguise they are hidden, out of the communist movement. The principled polemic saves you from decay, from the traps. The unflinching revolutionary struggle made us triumph, it and it alone will lead us to victory after victory. Unprincipled concessions and compromises, intoxication with success, soft-heartedness, vain illusions, uncalculated actions, fear of what enemies might say or of their attacks are dangerous. Therefore, we must further sharpen our vigilance because the present state of affairs is dangerous and can and will lead to situations in which dangerous views
Indeed, the whole tactic of the modem revisionists who have suffered defeats is to carry on similar hypocritical work, that of "holding out the hand of friendship", of "the penitent", of "the misled", of the flatterer who "praises" you in order to stab you in the back, until they recover from their defeat.
Our experience is great. It is clear to all how savage and cunning revisionism is, what destruction it has brought and is ready to bring, therefore, to soften the struggle against it is an impermissible crime. We must continue the struggle more vigorously than before, we must act in such a way that we not only expose the revisionists and revisionism to the end, but force them to unmask themselves, their line and their betrayal. Through our struggle, we forced them to overthrow Khrushchev, their chief, we forced them to unmask their line themselves. This is how we must continue. There is no other way. Had our Party and the other Marxist-Leninist parties not pursued this correct Marxist-Leninist course, Khrushchev and Khrushchevism would have been left in peace to spread and flourish.
We must closely watch the steps which the Soviet revisionist leadership, the other revisionists, and the imperialists will take. But it is impermissible for us to do only this, merely watch their steps and then unmask them. We must be on the offensive, must force them, through our correct and considered stands, to reveal their cards, their games, their aims, the directions of their policy, because they will have tendencies to proceed under cover, on the quiet, to leave us waiting open-mouthed like the fool in the fable, to say some sweet-sounding words to us so that we hesitate and say "let us wait and see, for who knows what plans they have", "they may turn out to be good, but they have to proceed step by step, they can't make a turn for the better all at once", etc., etc. We must not fall into these traps which they will set for us.
Where must we attack them and how must we attack them?
We must continue to attack the 20th and the 22nd ,Congresses with a much greater force.
First of all, we must defend the cause of Stalin. We, must make the modern revisionists, and first of all, the, Soviet revisionists, publicly acknowledge that they have. been wrong about Stalin, that they have slandered Stalin. This is one of the primary questions of principle. This, is the question of the defence of Marxism-Leninism, of the Soviet Union, of the construction of socialism in the Soviet Union, of the correct Marxist-Leninist line in ideology, in the economy, in policy and in organization, the defence of the Marxist-Leninist unity of the international communist movement, the defence of the unity of the socialist camp, and the essence of the struggle against imperialism, capitalism, opportunism, Titoism, Khrushchevism, and modern revisionism. If this victory is achieved the whole tangle comes apart.
The question of Stalin must inspire any action which, will cause the fall of the revisionist fortress. Proper recognition of the great work of Stalin is the guarantee for proceeding on the correct Leninist road. Stalin was and, is a glorious Leninist, irrespective of any minor mistakes he may have made. This matter must be understood properly and we must fight out to the end in order to defend him and to restore his glory.
The second question is that we must fight the 20th and 22nd Congresses and the treacherous consequences of this line in connection with the open and secret alliances of the Khrushchevites and other revisionists with world imperialism, American imperialism and other reactionaries.
First of all, we must force the modern revisionists to openly denounce American imperialism and the Khrushchevite open and secret negotiations with the Americans. The Moscow Treaty must be denounced, the betrayal of Cuba and Vietnam must be denounced, the aims of the Soviet aid for the Indian reactionaries must be denounced, the German Democratic Republic must be defended and the peacy treaty with Germany signed with the two German states, but if the others do not want this, with the German Democratic Republic only, as we have decided jointly.
The demagogy about disarmament must be exposed, demanding that the Americans accept complete, definite disarmament, etc., and if they refuse, then we must unmask all their manoeuvres and aims.
All the treaties of defence and economic and political collaboration signed between socialist countries must be re-examined in that direction which we proposed to Zhou Enlai when he was in our country on a visit.
We must fight persistently and unrelentlessly on all these and other things. We must build up a new tactic on these lines to achieve these objectives, because a new period with many known and unknown elements is opening before us. However, this does not mean that we should leave things to spontaneity and seize on momentary things or be influenced only by our desires, while not making proper use of the facts, and not following the events, etc., etc.
From the reports which we hear and read we can draw the conclusion that the fall of the traitor came like a great and unexpected bombshell to the modern revisionists. It astonished them, crushed them, and shook them to their foundations. Such a thing had never crossed their minds and was totally unexpected. Right up to the last day the revisionist press, including that of the Titoites, who are more vigilant and more prepared on these matters, continued to beat the drum as before. This shows that the action to purge Khrushchev was carried out in secret, very secret ways and in the form of a putsch. Their friends were left in the lurch, in silence, and caught unprepared. On the other hand, the report given from Moscow is very brief and justified with ridiculous arguments so that even the modern revisionists were unable to use them to calm, those they had duped for so many years on end. Therefore, they were not only dumbfounded, but also terrified, because they did not know what to cling to. Their ship was sinking. There was only one word of hope, that the new Soviet leadership "will follow the line of the 20th and 22nd Congresses". Therefore, in the first days and even now they continue to clutch at this straw, with fear in their hearts, but at the same time they are "angry" that Khrushchev was overthrown, "indignant" about the method used to overthrow him, want clarification and explanations about why this was done. Some of the revisionists are defending Khrushchev and calling him a great man, because they want to defend their own positions (without thinking about the future, when a great stink will rise from Khrushchev's betrayal), others defend him whole-heartedly and they are very close to American imperialism and the bourgeoisie, others, more reserved (once burnt twice shy), are awaiting explanations, others pretend they are not surprised, because Khrushchev had allegedly told them "a year ago" that he was going to, resign (rubbish!), some others are sitting on the fence waiting to lick the boots of the new overlords, while still others, like the Bulgarian revisionists, are saying "the king is dead, long live the King!"
All of them are very worried about public opinion in their countries and the opinion of their parties. And this grave political and ideological crisis found them in a grave economic situation. They are greatly concerned about how they are going to get through the winter which will be severe from every stand-point. They have lost all authority and are left with only two roads to follow, both bad for them, either to get out or to use terror against the revolution which will rise and threaten them. The middle road will not take them far. For the Soviet revisionists and modern revisionists in the former countries of people's democracy there is one road which is open to them, and they have long been working for this. This is the Titoite road, that is, they can follow Tito, strengthen their alliance with Tito, create the Titoite "cordon sanitaire" round the Soviet Union and exert pressure on it from these positions. In this dangerous transitional phase for modern revisionism, too, Titoism and Tito will play a major role as an agency of imperialism. The fall of Khrushchev was a heavy blow to Titoism as an ideology, a policy and an agency. But now the Titoite agency, financed by the Americans, will operate in the direction of linking the revisionist countries more closely with the United States of America, of concentrating them around Titoism ideologically and politically, in a word, will ensure the continuity of the revisionist line, etc. It will exert pressure in an organized way on the Soviet revisionist leaders to prevent them from relinquishing power to the Stalinists, and will try to drag them behind the bandwagon of the Titoites and the Americans and to continue to weaken the Soviet Union in all ways and in all fields. This will be the diabolical role of the Titoites in the new situation. They will hatch up all kinds of plots with all their might. Woe betide those who consider Tito an unimportant "minor devil". The Titoite agency is deeply entrenched in all the former socialist countries of Europe and in the Soviet Union, and American imperialism is deeply entrenched in them, too. Therefore, it is very naive to think that Marxism-Leninism will win new positions easily, without struggle. We shall fight and fight hard.
The fall of Khrushchev took the American imperialists by surprise, too. In him they had a good friend, a person adept at betrayal and making concessions to them, who liked to boast and who was compromised and compromised himself readily. Now the American imperialists will act intensively to preserve the status quo gained through Khrushchev for the time being, will exert blackmail and try all kinds of provocations to ensure that the new Soviet revisionist leaders proceed on Khrushchev's road, the road of concessions and betrayal. If the Soviet revisionists in essence proceed in the direction of the Americans, the latter will continue to work through their own agency directly and through their agency -Titoism, towards the weakening of the Soviet Union, towards separating the European "socialist" satellites completely from the Soviet Union and linking them with American imperialism. Nevertheless, the Americans. too, suffered a defeat with the overthrow of Khrushchev.
The general strategy of American imperialism, too, has entered a grave crisis. In general, the situation will become more tense, the revolution will mount and the betrayal will gradually be exposed and overcome. But only by fighting will we triumph. Our Party will remain unwavering, vigilant, in the forefront of the fight. These are the first days of a new, very interesting, very complicated situation. Major factors are in collision. In these conditions we must do our duty, must fight hard to make our contribution. Our Party has gained strong positions in the international communist movement, its voice is listened to, therefore. have great responsibility in this is situation as in all other situations. Our correct line has been vindicated, we must hold high the banner of Marxism-Leninism.
TUESDAY OCTOBER 27, 1964
NO CONCESSIONS TO THE SOVIET REVISIONISTS!
There can be no talk about settling the ideological differences, about bilateral or multilateral meetings, about preparatory meetings or meetings of all parties, without the Soviet government's first putting its state relations in order with the People's Republic of Albania.
The Soviet government, which is solely to blame for breaking off all relations with our country, must publicly acknowledge its faults, its mistakes and the political and material damage it has caused the People's Republic of Albania.
The Soviet government must declare that the Soviet government, headed by Khrushchev, has acted in a hostile way towards the People's Republic of Albania, wanting to endanger its independence, to damage the socialist regime in Albania, to weaken and strangle the economy of the People's Republic of Albania. to hinder the normal development of socialism in our country, and to weaken the military defence of our country.
The Soviet government, headed by Khrushchev, and his clique sabotaged the economy of the People's Republic of Albania. It cut off credits to the People's Republic of Albania and seriously damaged our 3rd Five-year Plan, broke off all commercial relations with us and inflicted grave economic-financial damage on us, causing a reduction in the standard of living of the Albanian people. All these hostile anti-socialist actions were carried out with the premeditated diabolical aim of making the People's Republic of Albania and the Albanian people capitulate to the hostile anti-socialist dictate of the Soviet government, headed by Khrushchev.
Khrushchev, at the head of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, called on the Albanian people to rise in counter-revolution and overthrow the leadership of the Party of Labour of Albania and the Albanian government.
The Soviet government broke off diplomatic relations with the Albanian government, with a socialist country, so that it could operate freely, in a hostile way, against the People's Republic of Albania.
Khrushchev, as head of the Soviet government, and behind the back of Albania, plotted with Sophocles Venizelos, an enemy of the People's Republic of Albania, of the Albanian. people, of the independence and territorial integrity of the People's Republic of Albania, to annex Southern Albania to Greece (See: Enver Hoxha, Two Friendly Peoples, Eng. Ed., "8 Nentori" Publishing House. Tirana 1985, pp. 87-88, 94-95).
The Soviet government, headed by Khrushchev, expelled the People's Republic of Albania de facto from the Council of Mutual Economic Aid, with the aim of sabotaging the economy of the People's Republic of Albania. sabotaging its economic plans and cutting off economic aid for our country from all the member countries of Comecon, a thing which they did and which gravely damaged the economy of the People's Republic of Albania. This charges all the members of the Council of Mutual Economic Aid with grave material responsibility.
The Soviet government, headed by Khrushchev, stopped the supply to the PRA of necessary armaments decided through regular bilateral agreements, which were brutally torn up by the Soviet government. This was done to weaken the defence of the People's Republic of Albania and to facilitate the secret and open conspiratorial aims of Khrushchev and the Titoites, the Greek monarcho-facists and the American imperialists. This charges the Soviet government with grave responsibility.
The Soviet government, headed by Khrushchev, tore up the signed military agreement and robbed Albania of naval ships, actions which were to the detriment of the defence of the People's Republic of Albania and the socialist camp. The stolen military means must be returned to the People's Republic of Albania.
The Soviet government, headed by Khrushchev, expelled the People's Republic of Albania de facto from the Warsaw Treaty, and this hostile act was carried out with the aim that, at the opportune moment, the Soviet government, headed by Khrushchev could attack the People's Republic of Albania under the pretext of protecting it from impending danger.
While aiming all these hostile plans against the People's Republic of Albania, against the leadership of the Party of Labour of Albania and the Albanian government, the Soviet government, headed by Khrushchev, publicly accused the leaders of Albania of being "agents who had sold themselves to the imperialists".
Of course the new Soviet revisionist leaders will take steps to establish relations with us and, no doubt, will try to pass over in silence all these evil things which they have done to us from the state stand-point (without mentioning the issues of principle which make up another colossal chapter), as though nothing had occurred. They will pretend that by making such a proposal they are doing us a great "favour", giving us adeguate "satisfaction", and we ,ought to be very happy that we reached this day". We must reject all these base attempts of theirs with disgust. They must pay politically, ideologically, morally and materially for all the damage which they have caused us. No concession!
Not only must they publicly acknowledge the damage, but in order to establish diplomatic relations with us they must first pay for the political and material damage which they have caused the People's Republic of Albania. If they do not make such a public political declaration and pay us for the damage we must not accept diplomatic relations with them.
Otherwise it will be sheer deception. They need to establish diplomatic relations with us. They attacked us first, they declared war on us, we won, they lost the war. Now let them pay for the political-material damage down to the last penny. This must be our principled stand because they are revisionists. Had they been definitely routed, that would be another situation. But in the existing situation we must unmask the revisionists to the end and force them to unmask themselves.
The compensation for the damage they have caused us in the economy must be calculated down to the last penny in all the branches in which they have damaged us. These claims must be real, backed by facts. We are not the sort who want to take advantage of the situation. They caused us damage, they harmed us with their hostile work, therefore they are obliged to pay. If they are not going to pay we must still make tip the balance for what we owe them and what the they owe us. The difference must be paid by the side that owes it. This is a normal legal action. We respect the agreements but the others, too, must respect them and pay the debts they owe us.
MONDAY NOVEMBER 23, 1964
A BARBAROUS IMPERIALIST ACTION AGAINST THE CONGOLESE INSURGENTS
The barbarous Americans and their Belgian mercenaries today made a paratroop attack on the town of Stanleyville, which is in the hands of the Congolese insurgents. This is a brutal intervention of the imperialists - friends of the Khrushchevite and Titoite revisionists - are striving jointly in a thousand ways to quell the flames of peoples' national liberation struggle. Spaak (P. - H. Spaak it that time vice-premier and minister of Foreign Affairs of Belgium), the close friend of both Khrushchev and Tito, together with the Americans, is at the head of this bandit-like operation.
SATURDAY DECEMBER 5, 1964
WE MUST DEFEND THE HEROIC WAR OF THE PEOPLE OF SOUTH VIETNAM
The people of South Vietnam are waging an heroic war against American imperialism. This heroic war has, at the same time, a major international significance, because the fraternal Vietnamese people are not only fighting for their own liberation, but also fighting for all of us, the countries of socialism, for all the peoples who have risen against imperialism and colonialism. They are an example of heroism and sacrifice, and are demonstrating to the world that American imperialism can be beaten, as it is being beaten, can suffer defeats, just as it is suffering them, can be routed despite the many weapons it possesses and uses. as it is being routed in South Vietnam.
American imperialism has got itself into very great military and political difficulties. It has been discredited. Meeting after fruitless meeting is being held in Washington. In Vietnam the Americans are continually changing their puppets, are sending more and more re-inforcements and new weapons, but to no avail. The Khrushchevite revisionists, both with Khrushchev and now without
Khrushchev, are sabotaging the struggle of the heroic people of Vietnam. giving them nothing. The few weapons they gave them at first were old captured weapons, which were sabotaged and of no use whatsoever. With their silence, with their secret actions co-ordinated with the American imperialists, the Soviets are giving the Americans political end diplomatic assistance to quell and defeat the struggle of the people of Shout Vietnam for the benefit of the Americans The Khrushchevites are striving to pull the Americans out of the mire and to drown the heroic Vietnamese people. For their part, the Americans are hatching up savage diabolical plans to attack North Vietnam.
American imperialism cannot so quickly forget the thrashing it took in Korea at the hands of the Koreans and the Chinese. If they undertake another adventure, then they will find themselves facing the resistance of the whole Vietnamese people. The other peoples of peninsula and the whole world, too, will rise and the imperialists together with their allies, the modem revisionists, will suffer terrible political and military defeats. Hence, apart from stepping up their attacks on South Vietnam, the Americans will try to drag the UNO into adventures, and if they succeed in this, then larger-scale adventures on their part can be expected. If they fail, then they will be obliged to refrain from extending the war and save their "honour". Therefore our struggle in the UNO is of great importance.
First, the manoeuvres and plans of American imperialism against South Vietnam must be unmasked; second, the manoeuvres of the Soviets and the modern revisionists must be unmasked and they must be forced either to expose themselves, or to remain isolated, or to defend Vietnam reluctantly (but even in these circumstances they won't do this); and third, all the representatives of the countries of Africa and Asia must be rallied to the defence of the heroic Vietnamese people, and a pro-Vietnamese and anti-American unity should be created for this purpose in the UNO. I gave advice and instructions to this effect to Comrade Behar "Shtylla" (At that time minister of Foreign Affairs of the PR of Albania), who left for New York.
Comrade Behar must expose the American manoeuvres, the aim of which is to make the UNO intervene in the affairs of Vietnam and the whole of Indo-china. He must expose the Americans' preparations to intervene in North Vietnam and Lower Laos and to replace the decisions of the Geneva Conference with the decisions of UNO. He must refute the Americans' slanders about Vietnam and stress that the Americans must withdraw from South Vietnam. He must fight for the Geneva agreement, and forcefully condemn and expose any decision which the UNO may take contrary to what has been said above, and describe. it as illegal and unacceptable.
I instructed Behar to fight in these directions for complete solidarity with the Vietnamese brothers and comrades. I talked with Comrades Hysni and Ramiz and told them that we must keep this great issue alive in our press in a militant spirit.
Our heroic Vietnamese brothers and comrades will triumph.
VLORA. MONDAY JANUARY 4, 1965
AT UNO THE AMERICANS AND THE SOVIETS ARE INTRIGUING AGAINST THE PEOPLES
Last night the news agencies reported that Indonesia has announced its withdrawal from the United Nations Organization, because Malaysia has been elected a member of the Security Council. Indonesia lays claim to Kalimantan, where the Indonesian partisans have long been fighting to liberate it from the British colonizers. Indonesia's withdrawal from the UNO has caused or will cause great concern among the Americans and the Soviets, first of all, as well as among their satellites. The former use the UNO as an organ of theirs and commit atrocities in the world under its cloak. They commit acts of aggression in the name of UNO and engage in espionage through its different activities. The modern revisionists, who collaborate closely with American imperialism. have begun to behave like the Americans, to use the UNO as a disguise, and to reach agreements with the Americans to convert it into a joint tool, so that the Americans can operate and the Soviets indulge in demagogy. The prestige of the United Nations Organization has long been at a low ebb. The non-admission of China has made the crisis even deeper. No one can accept the fact that the biggest state in the world is not allowed into this organization. This is a flagrant demonstration of how the Americans and the Soviets are intriguing against the peoples in UNO.
Some newly-liberated countries have vain illusions that the UNO serves to defend them. In fact, through this organization, the American imperialists try to defend their own interests. The Soviet revisionists, who are opposed to revolutions and the freedom of the peoples, follow the Americans there, and carry on secret diplomacy with the United States of America in the UNO. Therefore the withdrawal of Indonesia will have repercussions and cause shock among the imperialists and revisionists, because this breaches the calm in which they have operated in the UNO. The countries newly admitted to the UNO Lire being convinced that their freedom and independence are not defended by the UNO but by the strength and organization of their own peoples. Only a correct stand and close alliance of the peoples of those countries with the Marxist-Leninist forces can defend and save them. The peoples of those countries will understand, in the long run, that the strengthening of the revolutions in the world, the mounting struggle against imperialism and revisionism, and not empty palaver and intrigues. will strengthen the UNO.
VLORA, WEDNESDAY JANUARY 6, 1965
WE MUST GIVE THE MEMBERS OF THE WARSAW TREATY THE PROPER REPLY
Orientations ("The Letter of the Government of the People's Republic of Albania addressed to the participants in the meeting of the Warsaw Treaty of January 19, 1965" Zeri i popullit, February 2, 1965) was drawn up on the basis of these orientations.)
I wrote to Comrade Ramiz that, as I told him on the telephone, we must accept the letter which the Polish government, obviously on behalf of the other members of the Warsaw Treaty- sent us, in which it invites us to take part in the meeting of the Political Consultative Committee, and not refuse to do so, as the comrades in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs think. We must not reject the letter, first, because it is sent to us not by the Soviet government alone, but by all the other members, with whom (with the exception of the Soviets) we have diplomatic relations, and second, we must give them a reply which will remain an historic document, in which we unmask them all for their illegal and reprehensible actions.
The letter must be drafted in serious terms by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the name of the Government, and any ideological consideration in polemical form should be omitted. The document should have a state character, and must be couched in strong direct terms in regard to facts and arguments.
We shall not take part in this meeting in the existing conditions, or in any conditions, as long as the members of the Warsaw Treaty are what they are. Therefore the conclusion of our reply is that we do not take part. In this letter, however, we must list a series of facts and demand a series of conditions which are fair to us from any legal, political and moral angle. If they do not fulfil these conditions, we do not go and all the blame falls on them.
What are the conditions to be included in our letter? I am putting down some that seem to me the main ones, though there may be others, and the people of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs should think about them.
First, in formulating our reply we must bear in mind all the documents linked with "Warsaw": the Treaty, the, decisions taken, the practice, the correspondence. I think that, first, the political, moral, ideological and military reasons for which the Treaty was signed, the rights and duties of each signatory state, etc., should be set out (although this may be repetition of some earlier letter). Then we should enter into the theme:
The People's Republic of Albania, a signatory state of the Warsaw Treaty, has been and is a member of this Treaty with full, equal and inviolable rights, and has always honourably performed its obligations in the context of the Warsaw Treaty. It has been expelled de facto, if not also de jure (which we do not know). It has not been invited, either to the offical meetings or to the secret meetings of this military political organization, and illegal decisions have been taken. Hence, you have violated the Treaty. This charges you with great responsibility. You have violated the legitimate rights of an independent, sovereign socialist state. Now, as if nothing had happened and thinking that you can act as you wish with the lawful rights of a socialist republic, you invite us to take part in a meeting.
If socialist Albania is to occupy its lawful and fully merited place, if it is to be guaranteed justice and equal conditions with the other member states on the basis of the provisions of the Treaty and the norms of relations between socialist states, if it is to be guaranteed its sovereign rights, freedom of speech and action within the Treaty, which have been arbitrarily violated and denied, if the former grave mistakes are not to be repeated in the future, a series of lawful demands, which are listed below, must be fulfilled an your part.
The Albanian Government desires to know, and this is its lawful right:
a) What were the reasons which led to the violation of the Treaty and its provisions, and to the exclusion of Albania from the meetings of the Treaty? Which member government of the Treaty undertook this hostile action against a socialist country? The Albanian Government, as an equal member and within its lawful rights, desires that copies of the confirmed minutes of meetings, at which illegal decisions against the PR of Albania have been discussed and taken, should be handed over to it.
b) The Albanian Government also desires to know your present joint opinion about these illegal actions against the People's Republic of Albania.
c) The Albanian Government has the right to be and must be fully informed about all the activity of the organization of the Warsaw Treaty, without hiding anything from it. since Albania has been excluded from meetings of the Treaty in an arbitrary and illegal way. Therefore, on the basis of the rights which the Treaty gives it as an equal and sovereign member, it desires to be sent all the minutes and the decisions which have been taken during this period on various questions by the Warsaw Treaty and its military and political organs in all the open or closed meetings. The Albanian Government must be fully informed of the activity of the organization, without hiding anything from it.
d) In the period before the arbitrary and illegal de facto exclusion of the PR of Albania from the Warsaw Treaty, a series of very important political, economic and military decisions of an international character and of an internal character for the signatory countries of the Warsaw Treaty were taken jointly and unanimously. With lawful right the Albanian Government desires to know what has been the fate of these joint decisions, which of them have been applied and how they have been applied, which have not been applied, for what reasons and by whom have they been violated. In order to be fully informed it desires to be sent copies of the reports, discussions and decisions taken on these questions by the leading organs of the Warsaw Treaty during the four year period since Albania has been deprived of the right of Its participation in the meetings of the Treaty.
e) The Albanian Government desires to know whether the Moscow Treaty on the prohibition of nuclear tests in space and under water is a decision taken collectively by the Warsaw Treaty. If this is so, this decision is illegal. If the Moscow Treaty is the work of one member of the Warsaw Treaty and the others have only adhered to it, then the Albanian Government arrives at the conclusion that the Organization of the Warsaw Treaty has been undermined over a question so vital for the socialist camp and the whole world by the arbitrary will of one government. This disdainful stand of the Soviet government must be sternly condemned and the legality of the Moscow Treaty must be discussed. The Albanian Government remains firmly opposed to the Moscow Treaty, does not recognize it, condemns it and proposes that it should be denounced.
The members of the Warsaw Treaty, some directly and some indirectly, bear grave responsibility for a great number of hostile and very dangerous actions against the People's Republic of Albania and its independence and sovereignty. Grave responsibility falls on the Organization of the Warsaw Treaty which allowed the Soviet government, headed by Nikita Khrushchev to act in hostile ways against Albania. (We should mention some of these activities which come within the sphere of the activity of the Treaty.) Other hostile actions of the Soviet government and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Soviet Union, both headed by Nikita Khrushchev, come within other spheres of activity, and we have raised and will continue to raise them until they find the correct Marxist-Leninist solution.
The Soviet government, in the spirit of the Warsaw Treaty, in the spirit of the alliance and the joint defence against imperialism, had undertaken obligations towards the People's Republic of Albania. It arbitrarily tore up the bilateral agreements on arming the Albanian army and on the defence of the People's Republic of Albania.
With hostile aims the Soviet government tried to disarm our army, cut off supplies of weapons, ammunition, fuel, spare parts, etc. The Soviet government tore up these agreements and robbed Albania of four submarines, the property of the People's Republic of Albania. These arbitrary, illegal, hostile actions of the Soviets weakened the defence of the People's Republic of Albania. threatened its independence, left the borders of Albania unprotected against enemies - the American imperialists, the Greek monarcho-fascists, the Italian reactionaries and the Titoite traitors and plotters, and compelled Albania to slow the tempo of the development of its economy in order to strengthen the defence of the Homeland and the borders of the socialist camp The other members of the Treaty are aware of these actions of the Soviet government. We do not know, and we want to know, whether they have approved these actions. If so, they bear responsibility, if
they have not approved them then have they condemned them and what opinion have they at present about these hostile Soviet actions? The Albanian Government rightly demands that the Soviet government not only acknowledge these hostile actions, but immediately return all the
material means and military equipment that belong to the People's Republic of Albania, and pay for the damage which it has caused the economy through the unilateral cancelling of credits, and various agreements and relations of an economic character. If these actions are not taken by the Soviet government, this means that it is maintaining its hostile stand to the People's Republic of Albania and its government, and does not want fair, equal and lawful conditions to be created for it within the Organization of the Warsaw Treaty, therefore, the invitation which is I made to our Government to take part in the meeting of the Warsaw Treaty is a fraud.
How is it possible for the Government of the People's Republic of Albania to take part on equal terms and in the spirit of friendship in the meeting of the Warsaw Treaty when some members of this Organization have withdrawn their ambassadors without sound, proper reasons, although they maintain formal diplomatic relations with our Government? They must correct this in the same forms in which they undertook these actions. Meanwhile the government of the Soviet Union brutally broke off diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of Albania and. thus. crowned its hostile activity towards our country. The government of the Soviet Union must have the courage to repair this fatal mistake immediately. As to how it must repair it, our Party and Government have made this known publicly to the Soviet government. if it does do so. this means that the Soviet government is maintaining its hostile stand towards the People's Republic of Albania, that it is continuing to work in subversive ways against it and the Albanian leadership, and apart from other things, this is obviously contrary to the provisions and spirit of the Warsaw Treaty. In these conditions it is clear that the spirit of the Warsaw Treaty which brought this organization into being does not exist through the fault and the arbitrary desire of the Soviet government which wants to impose its decisions, opinions and desires on other members of the Warsaw Treaty and on the People's Republic of Albania. in particular. Obviously, also, those hostile and illegal activities of the Soviet government, its persistence in these actions, its lack of desire and courage to correct them. show that it continues to prevent the participation of the People's Republic of Albania with full rights and full equality in the meetings of the Warsaw Treaty. In these conditions, while retaining all our rights, we cannot take part in this meeting. All the responsibility falls on you and on the Soviet government, in particular.
On the other hand, without making the other members of the Warsaw Treaty directly responsible for this, we accuse the Soviet government of hostile activities, both subversive and open, against an allied socialist country, a member of the Warsaw Treaty, such as the People's Republic of Albania. From the tribune of the 22nd Congress of the CPSU, the Soviet leadership headed by Khrushchev openly called on the Albanian people to rise in counter-revolution against the Party of Labour of Albania and the Albanian Government, openly called for the overthrow of the leadership of the Party and the Albanian state. The Soviet government has openly armed the Titoite traitor group, that agency of American imperialism which has consistently plotted against the People's Republic of Albania, to destroy socialism in our country and to make Albania a Yugoslav republic. These actions of the Soviet government cannot be unknown to the other members of the Warsaw Treaty, just as the open supply by the Soviet government of large quantities of modern weapons to the Indian reactionaries who attacked the borders of China cannot be unknown to them. How is it possible that the socialist countries and members of the organization of the Warsaw Treaty permit such monstrous activities which, even if they are not carried out in the name of the organization of the Warsaw Treaty, are carried out by a member of the Warsaw Treaty and, moreover, by the main one? Our activities, whether inside or outside the Warsaw Treaty, must be directed to a just common aim.
The Albanian Government cannot approve and cannot fail to sternly denounce all the arbitrary, illegal, and anti-socialist acts which have been undertaken against it by the Soviet government, in particular.
Our Government demands that the members of the Warsaw Treaty sternly condemn these hostile actions of the Soviet government, make the Soviet government immediately cease supplying weapons to the Titoites, the Indian reactionaries and any government which uses these weapons for aggression and to oppress its own or other peoples. Correct actions on your part in this direction will assist the organization of the Warsaw Treaty to take the right road, to adept the genuine revolutionary spirit and become the true defender of the socialist camp. But if our organization is truly to become that organization for which it was founded and adapt itself to the present situation in the world. our Government cannot reconcile itself to the arbitrary actions of one government which thinks that it alone makes the law and that the other, must obey it blindly. even in its "legal" actions. Our Government thinks that if you take the measures which we propose in our letter in a correct and favourable way, then all the conditions will be created for our Government really to take part in meetings with all its rights and have the possibility and full right to present its views openly on the work of the Warsaw Treaty. on its activity, its organization. its political and military plans, and many other problems which the, Soviet government headed by Khrushchev has set on the wrong and dangerous course. If you reject our proposals this will confirm our legitimate suspicion that you, and especially the Soviet government, are afraid of the truth, of the democratic and socialist spirit which ought to prevail between our states and, especially, in the Organization of the Warsaw Treaty. For our part we have always spoken openly and sincerely with the other socialist countries, because for us the defence of genuine Marxist-Leninist unity has always been the central aim of our principled struggle.
Others have fought savagely against the PR of Albania, have conspired against it and have damaged it. The Albanian Government has in its possession incontestable documents and proofs that a group of individuals who were and are at the head of a powerful "socialists" state, a member of the Warsaw Treaty, have collaborated with the Titoite renegades, the Greek monarcho-fascists, the American 6th Fleet, and their agents inside Albania to liquidate the People's Republic of Albania by force, through an armed attack. The Albanian Government is also aware that the same group of people has striven within the Organization of the Warsaw Treaty to do very evil things against our people in the name of this organization. In both instances, however, thanks to the unit, patriotism and vigilance of the Albanian people led by the PLA, they were unable to attain their sinister, hostile, anti-Marxist objectives. Are these people still going to be defended, are their criminal actions to remain uncondemned? This must not be permitted. You may be sure that we will defend ourselves with all our might and means against enemies and scoundrels. We are on the right course, we warn our friends and comrades that they should re-examine their wrong stands, we want our friends to avoid compromising themselves in the dangerous actions of the secret enemies, actions which, sooner or later, will be revealed in the true light of facts. Marxism-Leninism cannot be reconciled with hostile actions against peoples, against socialism and communism.
For the sake of major interests, the Albanian Government appeals to the governments that took the step of summoning the PR of Albania to meetings, to carry matters boldly through to the end so that the road is cleared of hostility, of rotten things, and the situation becomes healthy. We are convinced that Marxist-Leninist justice will triumph regardless of whether or not some want it. For our part, our conscience is clear, because we have done, are doing, and will do our duty...
VLORA, FRIDAY JANUARY 8, 1965
AGAIN ABOUT THE LETTER WHICH WE ARE TO SEND THE MEMBER COUNTRIES OF THE WARSAW TREATY
I wrote to Ramiz again about the reply we are going to send the member countries of the Warsaw Treaty, suggesting that in the formulation of the letter these ideas, which I believe are important, should be borne in mind:
1- In these conditions which you have created for the People's Republic of Albania in the Warsaw Treaty, the Albanian Government, through this letter, expresses its opinion with full responsibility about the agenda you propose:
Against the arming of Bonn Germany with atomic weapons. This has been, is and always will be our view. We have fought, are fighting, and always will fight against the Americans' supplying it with atomic weapons.
The source of the danger lies in the anti-Marxist and anti-socialist capitulationist policy to American imperialism adopted by the Soviet government headed by former prime minister, Nikita Khrushchev, who linked the issue of the notorious Moscow Treaty with the supplying of atomic weapons to West Germany and with dubious deals about sacrificing the rights, the freedom, independence and sovereignty of the German Democratic Republic.
We have openly and publicly denounced the sinister aims of Khrushchev when the Moscow Treaty was signed; Khrushchev and his associates concealed their true aims. Now these are emerging openly, in dangerous ways. Irrespective of the Moscow Treaty and Nikita Khrushchev's pledges, the United States of America, Khrushchev's "reasonable and peaceful" friend, is arming Bonn with atomic weapons. We ask: Why was this Moscow Treaty signed? Against whom was this Treaty concluded?
With a policy of capitulation to American imperialism, such as this that the Soviet government continues to pursue, a policy which it hides under the formulas of "peaceful coexistence", "peaceful competition". and others or this type, which in practice are anti-Leninist, you cannot get very far, and peace and the existence of mankind cannot be defended from the nuclear catastrophe which American imperialism and its allies want to launch.
We Albanians and all the peoples are concerned, but not intimidated. American imperialism is the number one enemy, it is preparing for war and arming its allies to attack us. This situation must be dealt with not by making concessions to the Americans, but by pinning them down and forcing them to retreat. With the present policy which is being pursued by the Soviet government and some governments of other Warsaw Treaty member countries, a dangerous course is being pursued, assisting the outbreak of war by American imperialism.
Earlier we took correct joint decisions, but they have been violated, abandoned, in order to take wrong decisions.
We must defend the German Democratic Republic with all our strength. We have taken a decision to sign the peace treaty with it, whether or not the others come. The Soviet government headed by Khrushchev was intimidated by and capitulated to the Americans and breached this decision, with aims very harmful to the future of the German people, the peoples of our countries and the peoples of the world. You bear grave responsibility for this, too. If the German Democratic Republic is not defended, the Oder-Neisse border, the Sudetenland and Czechoslovakia cannot be defended, either. These things are linked together and are dear to all of us. We must defend our countries, defend our peoples and socialism, and not concoct plots against fraternal countries, as Nikita Khrushchev and some of his associates did. The truth is bitter, but it is the truth.
It is urgently necessary to correct the fatal mistakes made by the Soviet government. In the first place:
a) The peace treaty with the German Democratic Republic should be signed as soon as possible.
c) The Moscow Treaty should be denounced immediately by the Soviet government and those governments which signed this treaty.
The Government of the PR of Albania is convinced that no other measure or decision will have any effect in face of the threats of the USA and its allies and stop them in their war-mongering activity.
Khrushchev's policy of capitulation and charlatanry has failed ignominiously, causing colossal damage and creating serious dangers. This cannot but be clear to the governments of other member states of the Warsaw Treaty. If you do not see this, you should reflect more profoundly; if you pretend not to see it, you are making a colossal mistake; if you persist in that hostile policy and continue to pursue it, you are committing a colossal crime and bear full responsibility for this before your peoples, before all the peoples of the world, before socialism.
We appeal to you to re-examine your foreign policy from start to finish, and courageously put it back on the right course as quickly as possible, because not only do we have colossal strength, but the international circumstances are such that they favour such a change of course. We appeal to you to study the circumstances profoundly so that we benefit from them, benefit from the deep contradictions in the ranks of the imperialists in order to deal them even more powerful blows.
2- There where we speak about the arming of the Indian reactionaries by the Soviets, we must put in that the former are imprisoning and torturing communists and that it is unheard of for the murderers and torturers of communists to be called friends and loyal allies of a socialist state and to be helped by that state with all its means. This shows clearly that the Soviet leaders are in solidarity with the reactionary Indian bourgeoisie and the agent of the bourgeoisie, Dange (At that time chairman of the communist Party of India (revisionist)), for the suppression of the Indian revolutionary Marxist-Leninists.
The Polish government, to which the letter is addressed, should be requested to present it to the plenary meeting of the Political Consultative Committee or simply to the plenary meeting of the Warsaw Treaty, at which it should be read. If this is not done, we must tell them that they are not only continuing an old injustice, but also trying, in an illegal way, to conceal the views of a member of the Warsaw Treaty. We can add, also, that the Albanian Government reserves the right to make the views expressed in this letter known to the general public at the moment it deems opportune and through the means it has at its disposal.
MONDAY JANUARY 25, 1965
ON THE MEETING OF THE POLITICAL CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE WARSAW TREATY
Notes (Published with some abridgment, in Enver Hoxha. Works, vol. 28. Alb. ed. "8 Nentori" Publishing House Tirana 1978, p. 438)
The first reports we are receiving on the proceedings of the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Treaty confirm our forecasts. At this meeting there were quarrels, profound contradictions and disagreements over nearly all the main problems which were raised, or better to say, should have been raised. As we expected, the communiqué which was published did not express anything concrete. But what is worse for them, is that neither the problem which was on the agenda nor the other problems which might have been added were analysed to the end, as such a forum as the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Treaty should do. Hence the agenda was only superficially dealt with in some general formulations, and even on these there was and could be no unanimity.
The main reason for such an unsuccessful meeting is the fear of an open split between the revisionists, because the contradictions between them are insurmountable. This is the sword of Damocles which is hanging over their heads. In fact they do not agree with one another, they act separately, each state defending its own purely national interests to the detriment of unity of joint action. They have undermined any real unity. The problems which emerge it various periods and which require urgent solution and clear, resolute stands are glossed over superficially, and they come out with a communiqué like the one they published, at which the whole Western press sneered and jeered; the American press alone, in order to enhance the "prestige" of this worthless communiqué, sought to find some alleged invisible and very disguised thireat concealed behind its phrases. Apparently the American imperialists are scandalized, and at the same time saddened by this "flagrant incapacity to act" of their allies, the Soviet revisionists.
The fact is, however, that the meeting of the Political Consultative Commitee of the Warsaw Treaty was demanded by Ulbricht, who did not succeed in having even one phrase about the defence of the German Democratic Republic or any warning, albeit formal, to Bonn inserted in the communiqué. Ulbricht got nothing. Khrushchev, at least, "did a bit of shouting" for appearances' sake. On the other hand, it is rumoured that Dej opposed some formulations and in particular, "threatened to leave the meeting and refused to sign the communiqué if acceptance of Zhou Enlai's proposal on the meeting of heads of governments were not included in it..." Apparently the others did not want to include it because they considered it an imposition of the Chinese policy on their states which are "united" by a formal treaty, but which, in fact, are disunited and without any treaty.
We are not fully informed about what they did with the letter of our Government to the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Treaty, but even if it were not read out, it must have been distributed, and it has dominated and crushed the panic-stricken revisionist plotters. They are certainly anxiously awaiting the public explosion of our bomb which will on off without fail and without delay.
Not wanting to add insult to injury the Soviets, of course, did not dare to raise other very acute problems, especially such problems as the "famous" meeting of March 1965 (The revisionists field this on March 1-5, 1965 in Moscow with file aim of condemning the Marxist-Leninism parties as "dogmatic" and expelling them from the communist movement), which they are so anxious to hold.
On bad terms with the Rumanians, on bad terms with the Germans, and not on good terms with the others, the Soviet revisionists are getting together with the revisionist Gomulka, the agent of the bourgeoisie, to talk things over tête-à-tête and discuss their problems, but the snake is biting them deeper than before.
The Mikoyan-Brezhnev clique is destroying the Soviet Union. This is the period of the Soviet Union's slide to disaster, a process begun by Khrushchev. which his group is continuing and is now being consummated by the trio of traitors and their. revisionist group.
It is the immediate task of genuine Marxist-Leninist parties to fight relentlessly against the Khrushchevite revisionists and other revisionist groupings, to thoroughly expose them, because only in this way will they encourage, enlighten and strengthen the revolutionary forces in order to rescue the peoples of the Soviet Union and the other countries of the former people's democracy from the clutches of modern revisionism and world capitalism.
TUESDAY FEBRUARY 9, 1965;
THE AMERICAN PROVOCATIONS AGAINST THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM
Yesterday and the day before American aircraft bombed a number of inhabited centres in North Vietnam, killing civilians and destroying homes, hospitals and schools. The purpose of these barbarous provocative acts is to threaten the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, to extend the aggressive war into North Vietnam. to quell the heroic fight of the partisans of South Vietnam and to, rescue the American prestige which is at rock-bottom in the eyes of all the peoples of the world. This displays to the world the weakness and savagery of the United States of America, the aggressiveness and war-mongering character of the gendarme of the peoples - American imperialism.
Before he left for Hanoi, Kosygin made his calculations as it pleased him. The Soviet revisionist leaders smiled warmly on Johnson's recent speech, welcomed his suggestion that he would like to visit the Soviet Union, and. likewise, expressed the desire for the Soviet leaders to visit the United States of America, as well as many other actions which are advanced for the Americans. All these things done before Kosygin's trip had the aim of strengthening friendly gestures towards American imperialism, of assuring the Americans that Kosygin's going to Hanoi should not upset them at all and that they ought to understand that Kosygin's speeches in Hanoi would be demagogy, words very far removed from their deeds. However Kosygin had not taken account of the heroic struggle of the people of South Vietnam, who would not stop their war against the American aggressors, and this war was bound to ruin Kosygin's bourgeois, pacifist plans, just as it did.
Kosygin fell into the trap which he tried to set for others. He was caught unawares and his first demagogic words in Hanoi were saluted with volleys of fire by the Vietnamese partisan heroes, who attacked an American air-base with great success, and as the Americans themselves admitted, destroyed several American aircraft and helicopters, killed 9 American airmen and wounded 130 others.
Naturally this heroic action ruined Kosygin's plans and inflicted a big military and political defeat on the Americans. In this situation the Americans undertook their provocation with the aims we have stated. However the provocation. somewhat similar to that of the Caribbean, although different in forms and tactics, was carried out by the Americans following the tactics of the Soviet revisionists, of course, with some considerable differences. At the same time as Kosygin was issuing bombastic, demagogic phrases in Hanoi, the Americans were speaking through the language of bombs, and while the Soviet revisionists declared their loyalty to their friendship with the United States of America before they set out on their journey, the Americans, after their provocative act, declared that this act had no connection with the presence of Kosygin in Hanoi.
The Soviet revisionists were dumbfounded, were terrified, as always. because the American's barbarous action was blackmail for them, a serious warning to the Soviets not to go beyond the bounds (which possibly they had decided jointly). In fact, less than 28 hours after the American bombardment, the Soviet revisionists issued a brief "hot air" communiqué and this they buried amidst the news on the third page of Pravda. This astonished the world, but not us. The whole of progressive world opinion was indignant, and the revisionists were caught between two fires, confused. Yesterday they managed to bring out a somewhat official declaration which, of course, is demagogy and counts for nothing, because the development of events forced them to issue it, and this, without doubt, will lead to further concessions to the Americans later, to make amends for this reluctant "boldness" which they were obliged to display. However this will have bitter consequences for them in the world and in their own country, because, while it is true that the revisionists will use this demagogic gesture, it is a two-edged sword, which involves the fundamental exposure of the pro-American policy of the modern revisionists.
We are solid to the end with the heroic people of South and North Vietnam. We are issuing a government declaration of solidarity with them to the end. All over our country today rallies are being held and popular demonstrations will burst out in solidarity with Vietnam and in condemnation of the American aggressors. Our press is full of materials about the war in Vietnam and this will continue. The Women's Organization has launched a campaign for aid for the fighting people of South Vietnam. All these things will strengthen our internationalist solidarity with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, with the valiant Vietnamese partisans and all the peoples of the world who are fighting for freedom.
TUESDAY FEBRUARY 16, 1965
A JUST AND FIRM STEP OF OUR COUNTRY IN UNO
This evening our representative to UNO, Comrade Halim Budo, will take the floor and demand that the Assembly continue its work on the basis of the procedure laid down in the Charter, which the Americans and the Soviets have violated. Of course, our motion will shock them will take them by surprise, and we have chosen the appropriate moment when, behind the scenes, the gangsters in UNO have reached an agreement to adjourn the meeting until autumn. We will certainly ruin their plans. They will violate the Charter in order to escape from the stranglehold we shall put on them, but we are determined to do our duty manfully. We shall expose them badly and Albania will be spoken of with admiration in the world.
WEDNESDAY FEBRUARY 17, 1965
SENSATION IN UNO
The motion presented by our delegation in the General Assembly of UNO (The representatives of the United States of America and of the Soviet Union tried to ensure that the proceedings of the 19th Session of the General Assembly of the UNO took place in abnormal conditions and that any question that ought to be put to the vote was not discussed. These efforts were defeated thanks to the struggle of our delegation which demanded that its motion to the effect that "the General Assembly should immediately begin its normal work in conformity with the Charter and its internal rules, and proceed immediately with the election of the bureau and the adoption of the agenda in order to begin the examination of different questions without delay" should be discussed with priority, before any other question, and be decided by immediate roll-call vote) today has caused a great sensation throughout the world. All the news agencies are speaking about the Albanian action, which they describe as "a bombshell which is shaking UNO", etc. When Halim finished speaking, he was warmly applauded. The dumbfounded President of the Assembly three times begged Halim to withdraw the demand. Of course he did not budge. Great astonishment! Many are obliged to speak well of Albania... The President of the Assembly closed the session and adjourned it until tomorrow evening in order to find a way to break our grip, which, whatever they do, remains like the sword of Damocles hanging over their heads.